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Forests 2017, 8(11), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8110421

Effects of Reforestation and Site Preparation Methods on Early Growth and Survival of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in South-Eastern Poland

1
Department of Forest Protection and Ecology, Faculty of Forestry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 159 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 159 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
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Abstract

Successful tree regeneration is a key process in ensuring forest sustainability and one of the most crucial investments made in silviculture. This study compared the effects of three reforestation methods (planting, direct seeding, and natural regeneration) and three mechanical site preparation methods (double mould-board forest plough (FP); active plough (AP); and forest mill (FM)) on biometric parameters, survival, and density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in the first 4 years of growth in a clear-cut area in south-eastern Poland. Planted seedlings were higher, thicker in root collar, and had higher survival rates after the fourth growing season than trees from natural regeneration and direct seeding. Site preparation methods did not affect the density of planted seedlings. After natural regeneration and direct seeding, seedling density was lower and less homogeneous (plots with no seedlings) in FM soil preparation in comparison to other methods. The survival of pines in all reforestation methods was not affected significantly by site preparation methods. Our results indicate that the best mechanical site preparation method for planting is FM, as this is the one that least disturbs the soil environment. For direct seeding the best results were achieved after AP preparation. Natural regeneration of Scots pine was most effective after FP use, and in relatively wet years also after AP use. View Full-Text
Keywords: artificial regeneration; direct seeding; natural regeneration; planting; soil preparation artificial regeneration; direct seeding; natural regeneration; planting; soil preparation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Aleksandrowicz-Trzcińska, M.; Drozdowski, S.; Wołczyk, Z.; Bielak, K.; Żybura, H. Effects of Reforestation and Site Preparation Methods on Early Growth and Survival of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in South-Eastern Poland. Forests 2017, 8, 421.

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