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Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons

Forestry Department, Farm Africa, Ethiopia office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Center for International Forestry Research, Forests and Livelihoods Research, CIFOR Ethiopia Office, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2014, 5(8), 1896-1909;
Received: 25 February 2014 / Revised: 1 July 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 31 July 2014
In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha) of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specifically with regards to area exclosure and afforestation and reforestation, and distills lessons regarding processes, achievements and challenges. The findings show that farmers and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are the main players, and that the private sector has so far played only a small role. The role of the government was mixed: supportive in some cases and hindering in others. The challenges of state- and NGO-led re-greening practices are: inadequate involvement of communities; poorly defined rehabilitation objectives; lack of management plans; unclear responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and poor silvicultural practices. The lessons include: a more active role for non-state actors in re-greening initiatives; more attention to market signals; devolution of management responsibility; clear definition of responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and better tenure security, which are all major factors to success. View Full-Text
Keywords: area exclosure; community; NGOs; markets; plantations; smallholders; tenure area exclosure; community; NGOs; markets; plantations; smallholders; tenure
MDPI and ACS Style

Lemenih, M.; Kassa, H. Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons. Forests 2014, 5, 1896-1909.

AMA Style

Lemenih M, Kassa H. Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons. Forests. 2014; 5(8):1896-1909.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lemenih, Mulugeta, and Habtemariam Kassa. 2014. "Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons" Forests 5, no. 8: 1896-1909.

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