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Open AccessArticle

Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons

1
Forestry Department, Farm Africa, Ethiopia office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
2
Center for International Forestry Research, Forests and Livelihoods Research, CIFOR Ethiopia Office, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2014, 5(8), 1896-1909; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5081896
Received: 25 February 2014 / Revised: 1 July 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 31 July 2014
In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha) of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specifically with regards to area exclosure and afforestation and reforestation, and distills lessons regarding processes, achievements and challenges. The findings show that farmers and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are the main players, and that the private sector has so far played only a small role. The role of the government was mixed: supportive in some cases and hindering in others. The challenges of state- and NGO-led re-greening practices are: inadequate involvement of communities; poorly defined rehabilitation objectives; lack of management plans; unclear responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and poor silvicultural practices. The lessons include: a more active role for non-state actors in re-greening initiatives; more attention to market signals; devolution of management responsibility; clear definition of responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and better tenure security, which are all major factors to success. View Full-Text
Keywords: area exclosure; community; NGOs; markets; plantations; smallholders; tenure area exclosure; community; NGOs; markets; plantations; smallholders; tenure
MDPI and ACS Style

Lemenih, M.; Kassa, H. Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons. Forests 2014, 5, 1896-1909.

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