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Article

Direct Phenological Responses but Later Growth Stimulation upon Spring and Summer/Autumn Warming of Prunus spinosa L. in a Common Garden Environment

1
Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Research Institute for Nature and Forest, 9500 Geraardsbergen, Belgium
2
Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of the Philippines Visayas Tacloban College, Magsaysay Blvd., Tacloban City 6500, Philippines
3
Bavarian State Institute of Forestry, Department Soil and Climate, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 1, D-85354 Freising, Germany
4
Department of Forest Resources, Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA), Avda. Montañana 930, 50059 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Craig Nitschke
Forests 2022, 13(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13010023
Received: 22 November 2021 / Revised: 17 December 2021 / Accepted: 20 December 2021 / Published: 24 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vulnerability of Forests to Climate Variability and Change)
Future predictions of forest ecosystem responses are a challenge, as global temperatures will further rise in the coming decades at an unprecedented rate. The effect of elevated temperature on growth performance and phenology of three Prunus spinosa L. provenances (originating from Belgium, Spain, and Sweden) in a common garden environment was investigated. One-year-old seedlings were grown in greenhouse conditions and exposed to ambient and elevated temperatures in the spring (on average 5.6 °C difference) and in the late summer/autumn of 2018 (on average 1.9 °C difference), while they were kept hydrated, in a factorial design. In the following years, all plants experienced the same growing conditions. Bud burst, leaf senescence, height, and diameter growth were recorded. Height and radial growth were not affected in the year of the treatments (2018) but were enhanced the year after (2019), whereas phenological responses depended on the temperature treatments in the year of the treatments (2018) with little carry-over effects in the succeeding years. Spring warming enhanced more height growth in the succeeding year, whereas summer/autumn warming stimulated more radial growth. Spring warming advanced bud burst and shortened the leaf opening process whereas summer/autumn warming delayed leaf senescence and enlarged the duration of this phenophase. These results can help predict the putative shifts in species composition of future forests and woody landscape elements. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; elevated temperature; bud burst; leaf senescence; cumulative logistic regression; black thorn; provenance trial; local adaptation climate change; elevated temperature; bud burst; leaf senescence; cumulative logistic regression; black thorn; provenance trial; local adaptation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vander Mijnsbrugge, K.; Malanguis, J.M.; Moreels, S.; Turcsán, A.; Van der Schueren, N.; Notivol Paino, E. Direct Phenological Responses but Later Growth Stimulation upon Spring and Summer/Autumn Warming of Prunus spinosa L. in a Common Garden Environment. Forests 2022, 13, 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/f13010023

AMA Style

Vander Mijnsbrugge K, Malanguis JM, Moreels S, Turcsán A, Van der Schueren N, Notivol Paino E. Direct Phenological Responses but Later Growth Stimulation upon Spring and Summer/Autumn Warming of Prunus spinosa L. in a Common Garden Environment. Forests. 2022; 13(1):23. https://doi.org/10.3390/f13010023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vander Mijnsbrugge, Kristine, Jessa May Malanguis, Stefaan Moreels, Arion Turcsán, Nele Van der Schueren, and Eduardo Notivol Paino. 2022. "Direct Phenological Responses but Later Growth Stimulation upon Spring and Summer/Autumn Warming of Prunus spinosa L. in a Common Garden Environment" Forests 13, no. 1: 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/f13010023

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