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Article

Evaluating Soil–Root Interaction of Hybrid Larch Seedlings Planted under Soil Compaction and Nitrogen Loading

1
Plant Nutrition laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8689, Japan
2
Silviculture and Forest Ecological Studies, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589, Japan
3
Forest Bioresource Technology laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589, Hokkaido, Japan
4
Department of Agriculture, Food, environment and Forestry, University of Florence, Via S. Bonaventura 13, 50145 Firenze, Italy
5
Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589, Hokkaido, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2020, 11(9), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11090947
Received: 22 June 2020 / Revised: 24 August 2020 / Accepted: 25 August 2020 / Published: 29 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Root System to Environment)
Although compacted soil can be recovered through root development of planted seedlings, the relationship between root morphologies and soil physical properties remain unclear. We investigated the impacts of soil compaction on planted hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica×L. kaempferi, hereafter F1) seedlings with/without N loading. We assumed that N loading might increase the fine root proportion of F1 seedlings under soil compaction, resulting in less effects of root development on soil recovery. We established experimental site with different levels of soil compaction and N loading, where two-year-old F1 seedlings were planted. We used a hardness change index (HCI) to quantify a degree of soil hardness change at each depth. We evaluated root morphological responses to soil compaction and N loading, focusing on ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. High soil hardness reduced the total dry mass of F1 seedlings by more than 30%. Significant positive correlations were found between HCI and root proportion, which indicated that F1 seedling could enhance soil recovery via root development. The reduction of fine root density and its proportion due to soil compaction was observed, while these responses were contrasting under N loading. Nevertheless, the relationships between HCI and root proportion were not changed by N loading. The relative abundance of the larch-specific ectomycorrhizal fungi under soil compaction was increased by N loading. We concluded that the root development of F1 seedling accelerates soil recovery, where N loading could induce root morphological changes under soil compaction, resulting in the persistent relationship between root development and soil recovery. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil compaction; N loading; fine root; root morphology; ectomycorrhizal fungi soil compaction; N loading; fine root; root morphology; ectomycorrhizal fungi
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sugai, T.; Yokoyama, S.; Tamai, Y.; Mori, H.; Marchi, E.; Watanabe, T.; Satoh, F.; Koike, T. Evaluating Soil–Root Interaction of Hybrid Larch Seedlings Planted under Soil Compaction and Nitrogen Loading. Forests 2020, 11, 947. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11090947

AMA Style

Sugai T, Yokoyama S, Tamai Y, Mori H, Marchi E, Watanabe T, Satoh F, Koike T. Evaluating Soil–Root Interaction of Hybrid Larch Seedlings Planted under Soil Compaction and Nitrogen Loading. Forests. 2020; 11(9):947. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11090947

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sugai, Tetsuto, Satoko Yokoyama, Yutaka Tamai, Hirotaka Mori, Enrico Marchi, Toshihiro Watanabe, Fuyuki Satoh, and Takayoshi Koike. 2020. "Evaluating Soil–Root Interaction of Hybrid Larch Seedlings Planted under Soil Compaction and Nitrogen Loading" Forests 11, no. 9: 947. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11090947

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