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A Foliar Endophyte of White Spruce Reduces Survival of the Eastern Spruce Budworm and Tree Defoliation

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Entomological Research Services Inc., 56 Cedar Ridge Drive, Douglas, NB E3G 7X1, Canada
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J.D. Irving Limited, 181 Aiton Road, Sussex East, NB E4G 2V5, Canada
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Maritime Innovation Limited, 181 Aiton Road, Sussex East, NB E4G 2V5, Canada
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Population Ecology Group, FOREM, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB E3B 6C2, Canada
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Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2020, 11(6), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11060659
Received: 23 April 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 5 June 2020 / Published: 10 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
Wild eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens) were reared on white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) trees, half of which had been previously inoculated with a native endophytic fungus, Phialocephala scopiformis DAOM 229536 Kowalski and Kehr (Helotiales, Ascomycota). Survival up to pupation and up to adult emergence was approximately 27% higher for budworm juveniles that developed on control trees compared to trees inoculated with the endophyte. The endophyte did not influence the size or sex of survivors but did reduce defoliation by approximately 30%. Reductions in defoliation on endophyte-inoculated versus control trees, due to reductions in survival of juvenile budworms, suggests that tree inoculations with P. scopiformis could play an important role in integrated management programs against the eastern spruce budworm. View Full-Text
Keywords: endophyte; Phialocephala scopiformis; Picea glauca; spruce budworm; defoliation endophyte; Phialocephala scopiformis; Picea glauca; spruce budworm; defoliation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Quiring, D.; Adams, G.; McCartney, A.; Edwards, S.; Miller, J.D. A Foliar Endophyte of White Spruce Reduces Survival of the Eastern Spruce Budworm and Tree Defoliation. Forests 2020, 11, 659.

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