The interaction of water and oak wood is common in outdoor expositions and will remain a probable occurrence in the future. New insights into the recognition of a cell wall saturation limit are presented by a double-weighing method at 20 °C. The cell wall saturation limit, as the property of thermally modified oak wood, is significantly influenced by different treatment temperatures (20, 160, 180, 210 and 240 °C) on a 5% alpha level. A significantly higher equilibrium moisture content was reached by thermally modified oak wood at a temperature of 20 °C and relative humidity of 65% after its equilibrium in the water-in-reservoir. Moreover, the results are used in the treatment of woodchips to produce cellulose or decomposition of thermally modified wood to its basic chemical components. The investigated properties of cellulose revealed its relationship with water. The number of water molecules bonded to a cellulose chain was correlated with other measured compositions: average molecular weight, total crystalline index, lateral order index and polydispersity index. Analyses showed that there was a strong negative correlation between lateral order index and average molecular weight. The same was true between total crystalline index and average molecular weight. The rest of the properties were positively correlated with the number of water molecules bonded to glucopyranose. The results revealed the possible regeneration of a wood sorption ability after heat treatment and the stability of cellulose in such process.
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