Next Article in Journal
A Statistical Approach to Detect Land Cover Changes in Mediterranean Ecosystems Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Data: The Case Study of Pianosa Island, Italy
Previous Article in Journal
Managing Forests and Water for People under a Changing Environment
Previous Article in Special Issue
Deforestation and Connectivity among Protected Areas of Tanzania
Open AccessArticle

Stakeholders’ Social Network in the Participatory Process of Formulation of Natura 2000 Management Programme in Slovenia

1
Water and Investments Directorate, Cohesion Division, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, Dunajska cesta 48, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Faculty of Social Science, University of Ljubljana, Kardeljeva ploščad 5, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Department of Forestry and Renewable Forest Resources, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 83, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2020, 11(3), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11030332
Received: 26 February 2020 / Revised: 13 March 2020 / Accepted: 14 March 2020 / Published: 17 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protected Areas in Forest Conservation: Challenges and Opportunities)
Stakeholder participation has become an important driving force in policy decision-making and implementation, particularly in the nature conservation sector, where complex interactions and conflict of interest between stakeholders are common. A stakeholder analysis, which was complemented with a social network analysis, was used to examine the cooperation and conflict network between stakeholders, their institutions, and sectors in the case of the formulation of the Natura 2000 Management programme in Slovenia for the period 2015–2020 (PUN). Using data from a web survey (n = 167), cooperation and conflict networks were analysed while using degree centrality, indegree centrality, betweenness centrality, and blockmodeling. The results of the stakeholder analysis showed that the highest number of stakeholders that are involved in the participatory process of PUN was from the forestry and hunting sector, followed by the agriculture and nature conservation sector. The results of the cooperation network showed that the network is highly centralized, with only few institutions taking a central position in the PUN process (Institute for Nature Conservation, Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, Chamber of Agriculture and Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food, and the Slovenian Forest Service). Moreover, the nature conservation sector was, on average, a sector with the highest concentration of power. In addition, in the cooperation network, which was fragmented across sectors, there were institutions that belonged to the same sector, which tended to cooperate with each other. The analysis of the conflict network showed that institutions with a central position in the cooperation network also had a central role in the conflict network. In addition, conflicts between institutions more frequently appeared among institutions from different sectors. The exceptions were institutions from the fishery and water sector, as this sector seemed to have many conflicts within it. Based on a blockmodeling, four groups of institutions were identified according to their cooperation network (core institutions, semi-core institutions, semi-periphery institutions, and periphery institutions). Our finding suggested that the participatory process of formulating PUN needs to be improved in such a way that in the future various stakeholders, especially excluded local ones, are more actively involved and a balance of the power between the stakeholders involved achieved. View Full-Text
Keywords: social network analysis (SNA); cooperation and conflict networks; stakeholders’ involvement; participatory process; Natura 2000 management Programme social network analysis (SNA); cooperation and conflict networks; stakeholders’ involvement; participatory process; Natura 2000 management Programme
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Laktić, T.; Žiberna, A.; Kogovšek, T.; Pezdevšek Malovrh, Š. Stakeholders’ Social Network in the Participatory Process of Formulation of Natura 2000 Management Programme in Slovenia. Forests 2020, 11, 332.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop