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Morphology, DNA Phylogeny, and Pathogenicity of Wilsonomyces carpophilus Isolate Causing Shot-Hole Disease of Prunus divaricata and Prunus armeniaca in Wild-Fruit Forest of Western Tianshan Mountains, China

1
College of Forestry and Horticulture, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, China
2
Forestry Technology Extension Center of Changji Prefecture, Changji 831100, China
3
The Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
4
CAS Key Laboratory of Biogeography and Bioresource in Arid Land, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Urumqi 830052, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2020, 11(3), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11030319
Received: 24 January 2020 / Revised: 10 March 2020 / Accepted: 12 March 2020 / Published: 13 March 2020
Prunus divaricata and Prunus armeniaca are important wild fruit trees that grow in part of the Western Tianshan Mountains in Central Asia, and they have been listed as endangered species in China. Shot-hole disease of stone fruits has become a major threat in the wild-fruit forest of the Western Tianshan Mountains. Twenty-five isolates were selected from diseased P. divaricata and P. armeniaca. According to the morphological characteristics of the culture, the 25 isolates were divided into eight morphological groups. Conidia were spindle-shaped, with ovate apical cells and truncated basal cells, with the majority of conidia comprising 3–4 septa, and the conidia had the same shape and color in morphological groups. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics and multilocus analysis using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, partial large subunit (LSU) nuclear ribosomal RNA (nrRNA) gene, and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene, the fungus was identified as Wilsonomyces carpophilus. The 25 W. carpophilus isolates had high genetic diversity in phylogenetic analysis, and the morphological groups did not correspond to phylogenetic groups. The pathogenicity of all W. carpophilus isolates was confirmed by inoculating healthy P. divaricata and P. armeniaca leaves and fruits. The pathogen was re-isolated from all inoculated tissues, thereby fulfilling Koch’s postulates. There were no significant differences in the pathogenicity of different isolates inoculated on P. armeniaca and P. divaricata leaves (p > 0.05). On fruit, G053 7m3 and G052 5m2 showed significant differences in inoculation on P. armeniaca, and G010 5m2 showed extremely significant differences with G004 7m2 and G004 5m2 on P. divaricata (p < 0.05). This is the first report on shot-hole disease of P. armeniaca (wild apricot) leaves and P. divaricata induced by W. carpophilus in China. View Full-Text
Keywords: Wilsonomyces carpophilus; Prunus divaricata; Prunus armeniaca (wild apricot); shot-hole disease; wild-fruit forest; China Wilsonomyces carpophilus; Prunus divaricata; Prunus armeniaca (wild apricot); shot-hole disease; wild-fruit forest; China
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Ye, S.; Jia, H.; Cai, G.; Tian, C.; Ma, R. Morphology, DNA Phylogeny, and Pathogenicity of Wilsonomyces carpophilus Isolate Causing Shot-Hole Disease of Prunus divaricata and Prunus armeniaca in Wild-Fruit Forest of Western Tianshan Mountains, China. Forests 2020, 11, 319.

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