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Open AccessArticle

The Importance of Multi-Scale Temporal and Spatial Management for Cemetery Trees in Malmö, Sweden

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School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, Kenneth C. Rowe Management Building, 6100 University Avenue, Suite 5010, P.O. Box 15000, Halifax NS B3H 4R2, Canada
2
Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 66, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2020, 11(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11010078
Received: 22 October 2019 / Revised: 20 December 2019 / Accepted: 2 January 2020 / Published: 9 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
Research Highlights: A large body of research highlighted the important contributions that urban forests make to cities and their inhabitants. However, our urban forests face threats from issues such as rapid urbanization, climate change, and the spread of pests and diseases. As such, proactive and effective management is necessary to ensure their long-term sustainability. Given the multiple spatial and temporal scales on which threats can arise, effective management needs to account for these scales and adjust accordingly. The degree to which this currently happens is unclear. Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the role of multi-scale management in urban forestry, using cemeteries in Malmö, Sweden as a case study. Cemeteries can provide extensive tree canopy but are not readily considered in urban forest management. We sought to determine (1) the threats to the current cemetery tree populations, (2) the extent of multi-scale cemetery tree management, (3) whether tree management plans promote multi-scale management, and (4) how cemetery tree management can be improved. Materials and Methods: Malmö cemetery tree inventories were analyzed with respect to size class and species diversity. Existing cemetery tree management plans were examined to determine the spatial and temporal scales of their recommendations. Interviews were conducted with cemetery managers to determine management priorities and actions. Results: We found that cemetery tree populations in Malmö suffer from a lack of age class and species diversity. Management tends to occur on short time scales and efforts focus mainly on addressing individual trees, although some consideration is given to large-scale species diversification. The management plans previously created for these cemetery trees make recommendations for age class and species diversification but are yet to be used extensively by cemetery managers. Conclusions: The long-term stability of Malmö’s cemetery tree populations is threatened by a lack of species and age diversity. Current management efforts emphasize addressing small-scale issues. Although there is a desire to improve species diversity, this can cause conflict with existing cultural values. View Full-Text
Keywords: cemeteries; urban forestry; management; Sweden; temporal; spatial; tree inventory cemeteries; urban forestry; management; Sweden; temporal; spatial; tree inventory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Quinton, J.M.; Östberg, J.; Duinker, P.N. The Importance of Multi-Scale Temporal and Spatial Management for Cemetery Trees in Malmö, Sweden. Forests 2020, 11, 78.

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