Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) play an active role in economic development, improving household livelihoods, raising the value of forestry production, and supporting sustainable forest management. This study involved a comprehensive assessment of the growth, development, and trade of NTFPs in Vietnam by combining logistic and tobit methods. Surveys were used to interview 400 households in three regions of Central Vietnam. Results showed that the planting, development, and trading of NTFPs are shaped by forestry production experience, the number of laborers, the percentage of wage earners, agricultural income, timber income, per capita income, the presence of bank deposits, the distance between forest and house, an understanding of forestry economic policies, and participation in technical training. Each factor had a different level of influence. Among the six NTFP groups, the groups generating yarn and medicines produced the highest income and had a strong impact on household reliance on NTFPs. This was followed by NTFPs used to generate food, oil, and plastic. The proportion of people with wages, and the income variable system, negatively impacted NTFP planting and income generation, which reduced household reliance on NTFPs. This means that there is a trade-off between NTFPs and other income generating activities. In the future, the government should develop specific plans, policies, and strategies for developing each type of NTFP suitable to each region’s natural conditions. The policies should include supporting people with low-interest bank loans; expanding the number of training courses to increase their understanding of forestry economic policies; and implementing cultivation techniques and forest care to improve the productivity, quality, and efficiency of NTFP products.
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