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Open AccessArticle

Are Wildfires a Threat to Fungi in European Pinus Forests? A Case Study of Boreal and Mediterranean Forests

1
Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid (Palencia), Avda. Madrid 44, 34071 Palencia, Spain
2
Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland
3
Department of Crop and Forest Sciences—Agrotecnio Center, Universitat de Lleida (UdL-Agrotecnio), Avda. Rovira Roure, 191, E-25198 Lleida, Spain
4
Centre de Ciència i Tecnologia Forestal de Catalunya (CTFC), Ctra. de St. Llorenç de Morunys km 2, E-25280 Solsona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(4), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10040309
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
Natural forests and plantations of Pinus are ecologically and economically important worldwide, producing an array of goods and services, including the provision of non-wood forest products. Pinus species play an important role in Mediterranean and boreal forests. Although Pinus species seem to show an ecological adaptation to recurrent wildfires, a new era of mega fires is predicted, owing to climate changes associated with global warming. As a consequence, fungal communities, which are key players in forest ecosystems, could be strongly affected by these wildfires. The aim of this study was to observe the fungal community dynamics, and particularly the edible fungi, in maritime (Pinus pinaster Ait.), austrian pine (Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold), and scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests growing under wet Mediterranean, dry Mediterranean, and boreal climatic conditions, respectively, by comparing the mushrooms produced in severely burned Pinus forests in each area. Sporocarps were collected during the main sampling campaigns in non-burned plots, and in burned plots one year and five years after fire. A total of 182 taxa, belonging to 81 genera, were collected from the sampled plots, indicating a high level of fungal diversity in these pine forests, independent of the climatic conditions. The composition of the fungal communities was strongly affected by wildfire. Mycorrhizal taxa were impacted more severely by wildfire than the saprotrophic taxa, particularly in boreal forests—no mycorrhizal taxa were observed in the year following fire in boreal forests. Based on our observations, it seems that fungal communities of boreal P. sylvestris forests are not as adapted to high-intensity fires as the Mediterranean fungal communities of P. nigra and P. pinaster forests. This will have an impact on reducing fungal diversity and potential incomes in rural economically depressed areas that depend on income from foraged edible fungi, one of the most important non-wood forest products. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal diversity; fire disturbance; edible mushrooms; rural incomes fungal diversity; fire disturbance; edible mushrooms; rural incomes
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Franco-Manchón, I.; Salo, K.; Oria-de-Rueda, J.A.; Bonet, J.A.; Martín-Pinto, P. Are Wildfires a Threat to Fungi in European Pinus Forests? A Case Study of Boreal and Mediterranean Forests. Forests 2019, 10, 309.

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