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Open AccessArticle

Species Mixing Effects on Height–Diameter and Basal Area Increment Models for Scots Pine and Maritime Pine

1
Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid & INIA, Av. Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain
2
Department of Silviculture and Forest Management, INIA, Forest Research Centre, Ctra. A Coruña, km 7.5, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Forest Engineering, Resources and Management, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
4
Departamento de Producción Vegetal y Recursos Forestales, E.T.S de Ingenierías Agrarias, Universidad de Valladolid, 34004 Palencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Adapted from my Ph.D. Thesis, E.T.S de Ingenierías Agrarias, Universidad de Valladolid, 34004 Palencia, Spain.
Forests 2019, 10(3), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10030249
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competition and Facilitation in Mixed Species Forests)
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Abstract

Models that incorporate known species-mixing effects on tree growth are essential tools to properly design silvicultural guidelines for mixed-species stands. Here, we developed generalized height–diameter (h-d) and basal area growth models for mixed stands of two main forest species in Spain: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Mixed-effects models were fitted from plot measurement and tree rings data from 726 Scots pine and 693 Maritime pine trees from mixed and pure stands in the Northern Iberian Range in Spain, with the primary objective of representing interactions between the species where they are interspersed in mixtures of varying proportions. An independent dataset was used to test the performance of the h-d models against models previously fitted for monospecific stands of both species. Basal area increment models were evaluated using a 10-fold block cross-validation procedure. We found that species mixing had contrasting effects on the species in both models. In h-d models, the species-mixing proportion determined the effect of species interactions. Basal area growth models showed that interspecific competition was influential only for Maritime pine; however, these effects differed depending on the mode of competition. For Scots pine, tree growth was not restricted by interspecies competition. The combination of mixed-effect models and the inclusion of parameters expressing species-mixing enhanced estimates of tree height and basal area growth compared with the available models previously developed for pure stands. Although the species-mixing effects were successfully represented in the fitted models, additional model components for accurately simulating the stand dynamics of mixtures with Scots pine and Maritime pine and other species mixtures require similar model refinements. Upon the completion of analyses required for these model refinements, the degree of improvement in simulating growth in species mixtures, including the effects of different management options, can be evaluated. View Full-Text
Keywords: tree allometry; individual tree model; mixed-species stands; Pinus sylvestris; Pinus pinaster tree allometry; individual tree model; mixed-species stands; Pinus sylvestris; Pinus pinaster
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Riofrío, J.; del Río, M.; Maguire, D.A.; Bravo, F. Species Mixing Effects on Height–Diameter and Basal Area Increment Models for Scots Pine and Maritime Pine. Forests 2019, 10, 249.

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