Next Article in Journal
Short-Term Nitrogen Addition Does Not Significantly Alter the Effects of Seasonal Drought on Leaf Functional Traits in Machilus pauhoi Kanehira Seedlings
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Yeast Extract on Seedling Growth Promotion and Soil Improvement in Afforestation in a Semiarid Chestnut Soil Area
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Forests 2019, 10(2), 77;

The Effects of Different Lead Pollution Levels on Soil Microbial Quantities and Metabolic Function with/without Salix integra Thunb. Planting

College of Landscape Architecture and Tourism, Hebei Agriculture University, 2596 Lekainandajie Road, Baoding 071000, China
Postdoctoral Researcher of Hebei Agriculture University
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4061 KB, uploaded 31 January 2019]   |  


Background and Objectives: Salix integra Thunb., a fast-growing woody species, has been used in phytoremediation in recent years. It has the potential to accumulate high amounts of lead (Pb) in its growth, however, its effects on soil microbial community structure and function during its phytoextraction processes are not well understood, especially at different pollution levels. Materials and Methods: In our study, we set unplanted and planted Salix integra in areas with four levels of Pb treatments (0, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg). After six months of planting, the rhizospheric soil, bulk soil, and unplanted soil were collected. Soil properties and microbes participating in nitrogen and phosphorus cycling were measured, following standard methods. Microbial metabolic functions were assessed using a Biolog-ECO microplate. Results: The bacteria (nitrogen-fixing bacteria, ammonifying bacteria, inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria, and nitrosobacteria) all increased in the 500 mg/kg treatment and decreased in the 1500 mg/kg treatment compared with the 0 mg/kg treatment, especially in rhizospheric soil. The microbial metabolisms decreased along with the increase of Pb levels, with the exception of the rhizospheric soil with a 500 mg/kg treatment. The metabolic patterns were relative to the pollution levels. The utilization of carbohydrates was decreased, and of amino acids or fatty acids was increased, in the 500 mg/kg treatment, while the opposite occurred in the 1500 mg/kg treatment. The values of soil properties, microbial quantities, and metabolic activities were higher in rhizospheric than bulk soil, while the differences between bulk and unplanted soil were different among the different Pb treatments. The soil properties had little effect on the microbial quantities and metabolic activities. Conclusions: S. integra planting and Pb levels had an interactive effect on the microbial community. In general, S. integra planting promoted microbial quantities and metabolic activity in rhizospheric soil. Lower Pb pollution increased microbial quantities and promoted the utilization of amino acids or fatty acids, while higher Pb concentrations decreased microbial quantities and metabolic activities, and promoted the utilization of carbohydrates. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytoremediation; soil physicochemical properties; Biolog-ECO microplate; RDA analysis phytoremediation; soil physicochemical properties; Biolog-ECO microplate; RDA analysis

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Niu, X.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, J.; Wang, X.; Gao, Z.; Huang, D. The Effects of Different Lead Pollution Levels on Soil Microbial Quantities and Metabolic Function with/without Salix integra Thunb. Planting. Forests 2019, 10, 77.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top