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Climate Change Impacts on Pinus pinea L. Silvicultural System for Cone Production and Ways to Contour Those Impacts: A Review Complemented with Data from Permanent Plots

1
João Abranches Freire Biosystems, 1000-255 Lisboa, Portugal
2
Centro Operativo e de Tecnologia do Regadio, 7801-904 Beja, Portugal
3
Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10020169
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
Umbrella pine (Pinus pinea L.) cones take three years to develop. With the increasing frequency of extreme droughts, water available for trees has decreased—climate change is a reality. The cone’s survival in its first two years of development and the average cone weight during its last year of maturation is affected, thus, reducing kernel quantity and quality. Climate change has resulted in forest fires becoming an inescapable issue in forest management planning. A literature review was carried out, focusing, on one hand, the predicted climatic changes for the Mediterranean basin and, on the other hand, the umbrella pine silvicultural mechanisms at tree, stand, and landscape levels that may help to face these constraints. Finally, the Portuguese case was focused, describing the management practices that are being adopted to achieve, even when the period of cone formation and growth include dry years, one to six tons of cones per hectare per year in adult stands. View Full-Text
Keywords: umbrella pine; cone production; climate change; water availability; forest management umbrella pine; cone production; climate change; water availability; forest management
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A. Freire, J.; C. Rodrigues, G.; Tomé, M. Climate Change Impacts on Pinus pinea L. Silvicultural System for Cone Production and Ways to Contour Those Impacts: A Review Complemented with Data from Permanent Plots. Forests 2019, 10, 169.

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