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Visualization and Localization of Submicron-Sized Ammonium Sulfate Particles on Needles of Japanese Larch (Larix kaempferi) and Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Leaves of Japanese Beech (Fagus crenata) and Japanese Chinquapin (Castanopsis sieboldii) after Artificial Exposure

1
Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
2
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan
3
Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
4
Graduate School of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
5
Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8589, Japan
6
Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(12), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10121151
Received: 15 November 2019 / Revised: 13 December 2019 / Accepted: 14 December 2019 / Published: 17 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Responses of Trees to Pollutants)
We applied a method combining field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) to visualize the deposition and localization of the submicron-sized ammonium sulfate (AS) particles. The AS particles emitted from an aerosol generator in the laboratory were spherical in shape and individually deposited without aggregation on the surface of a silicon substrate. We determined the AS particles on the surfaces of the needles of Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) and Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), and the leaves of Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) and Japanese chinquapin (Castanopsis sieboldii), using EDX. The particles were deposited on either the adaxial or abaxial side of the leaves and needles. The AS particles deposited on the surfaces of the leaves and needles did not aggregate, and they were deposited on the surfaces of the leaves and needles in the same manner, regardless of leaf structure. These results, using a new method, highlight the early stages of the deposition and localization of submicron-sized AS particles on the surfaces of the leaves and needles of forest trees. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonium sulfate particles; submicron-sized particles; field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM); energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) ammonium sulfate particles; submicron-sized particles; field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM); energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yamane, K.; Nakaba, S.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Sano, Y.; Lenggoro, I.W.; Izuta, T.; Funada, R. Visualization and Localization of Submicron-Sized Ammonium Sulfate Particles on Needles of Japanese Larch (Larix kaempferi) and Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Leaves of Japanese Beech (Fagus crenata) and Japanese Chinquapin (Castanopsis sieboldii) after Artificial Exposure. Forests 2019, 10, 1151. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10121151

AMA Style

Yamane K, Nakaba S, Yamaguchi M, Kuroda K, Sano Y, Lenggoro IW, Izuta T, Funada R. Visualization and Localization of Submicron-Sized Ammonium Sulfate Particles on Needles of Japanese Larch (Larix kaempferi) and Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Leaves of Japanese Beech (Fagus crenata) and Japanese Chinquapin (Castanopsis sieboldii) after Artificial Exposure. Forests. 2019; 10(12):1151. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10121151

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yamane, Kenichi, Satoshi Nakaba, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Katsushi Kuroda, Yuzou Sano, I. W. Lenggoro, Takeshi Izuta, and Ryo Funada. 2019. "Visualization and Localization of Submicron-Sized Ammonium Sulfate Particles on Needles of Japanese Larch (Larix kaempferi) and Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Leaves of Japanese Beech (Fagus crenata) and Japanese Chinquapin (Castanopsis sieboldii) after Artificial Exposure" Forests 10, no. 12: 1151. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10121151

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