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Article

A Conceptual Framework for the Spruce Budworm Early Intervention Strategy: Can Outbreaks be Stopped?

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Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Atlantic Forestry Centre, Fredericton, NB E3B 5P7, Canada
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Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Atlantic Forestry Centre, Corner Brook, NL A2H 5G4, Canada
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New Brunswick Department of Energy and Resource Development, 1350 Regent Street, Fredericton, NB E3C 2G6, Canada
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Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Sault Ste. Marie, ON P6A 2E5, Canada
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Forest Protection Ltd., 2502 Route 102 Highway, Lincoln, NB E3B 7E6, Canada
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Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E8, Canada
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Université de Montréal, Département des Sciences Biologiques, Pavillon Marie-Victorin, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
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Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3, Canada
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Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, Québec City, QC G1V 4C7, Canada
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U.S. Forest Service (retired), 42 Damon Pasture Lane, Lakeville, ME 04487, USA
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Population Ecology Group, Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB E3B 6C2, Canada
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Natural Resources Canada, Communications and Portfolio Sector, Atlantic Forestry Centre, Fredericton, NB E3B 5P7, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(10), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10100910
Received: 13 August 2019 / Revised: 9 October 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 16 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection Strategy against Spruce Budworm)
The spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, Clem., is the most significant defoliating pest of boreal balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and spruce (Picea sp.) in North America. Historically, spruce budworm outbreaks have been managed via a reactive, foliage protection approach focused on keeping trees alive rather than stopping the outbreak. However, recent theoretical and technical advances have renewed interest in proactive population control to reduce outbreak spread and magnitude, i.e., the Early Intervention Strategy (EIS). In essence, EIS is an area-wide management program premised on detecting and controlling rising spruce budworm populations (hotspots) along the leading edge of an outbreak. In this article, we lay out the conceptual framework for EIS, including all of the core components needed for such a program to be viable. We outline the competing hypotheses of spruce budworm population dynamics and discuss their implications for how we manage outbreaks. We also discuss the practical needs for such a program to be successful (e.g., hotspot monitoring, population control, and cost–benefit analyses), as well as the importance of proactive communications with stakeholders. View Full-Text
Keywords: foliage protection; population control; monitoring; area-wide management; science communication; economic and ecological cost: benefit analyses foliage protection; population control; monitoring; area-wide management; science communication; economic and ecological cost: benefit analyses
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    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3490982
    Link: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3490982
    Description: Table S1. Patterns and causes of periodic outbreaks, according to two contrasting theories, and how to optimally manage populations under each set of assumptions.
MDPI and ACS Style

Johns, R.C.; Bowden, J.J.; Carleton, D.R.; Cooke, B.J.; Edwards, S.; Emilson, E.J.S.; James, P.M.A.; Kneeshaw, D.; MacLean, D.A.; Martel, V.; Moise, E.R.D.; Mott, G.D.; Norfolk, C.J.; Owens, E.; Pureswaran, D.S.; Quiring, D.T.; Régnière, J.; Richard, B.; Stastny, M. A Conceptual Framework for the Spruce Budworm Early Intervention Strategy: Can Outbreaks be Stopped? Forests 2019, 10, 910. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10100910

AMA Style

Johns RC, Bowden JJ, Carleton DR, Cooke BJ, Edwards S, Emilson EJS, James PMA, Kneeshaw D, MacLean DA, Martel V, Moise ERD, Mott GD, Norfolk CJ, Owens E, Pureswaran DS, Quiring DT, Régnière J, Richard B, Stastny M. A Conceptual Framework for the Spruce Budworm Early Intervention Strategy: Can Outbreaks be Stopped? Forests. 2019; 10(10):910. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10100910

Chicago/Turabian Style

Johns, Robert C., Joseph J. Bowden, Drew R. Carleton, Barry J. Cooke, Sara Edwards, Erik J.S. Emilson, Patrick M.A. James, Dan Kneeshaw, David A. MacLean, Véronique Martel, Eric R.D. Moise, Gordon D. Mott, Chris J. Norfolk, Emily Owens, Deepa S. Pureswaran, Dan T. Quiring, Jacques Régnière, Brigitte Richard, and Michael Stastny. 2019. "A Conceptual Framework for the Spruce Budworm Early Intervention Strategy: Can Outbreaks be Stopped?" Forests 10, no. 10: 910. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10100910

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