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Modeling Migratory Flight in the Spruce Budworm: Temperature Constraints
Open AccessArticle

Modeling Migratory Flight in the Spruce Budworm: Circadian Rhythm

1
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, 1055 PEPS street, Quebec, QC G1V 4C7, Canada
2
Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(10), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10100877
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 26 September 2019 / Accepted: 30 September 2019 / Published: 5 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection Strategy against Spruce Budworm)
The crepuscular (evening) circadian rhythm of adult spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) flight activity under the influence of changing evening temperatures is described using a mathematical model. This description is intended for inclusion in a comprehensive model of spruce budworm flight activity leading to the simulation of mass migration events. The model for the temporal likelihood of moth emigration flight is calibrated using numerous observations of flight activity in the moth’s natural environment. Results indicate an accurate description of moth evening flight activity using a temporal function covering the period around sunset and modified by evening temperature conditions. The moth’s crepuscular flight activity is typically coincident with the evening transition of the atmospheric boundary layer from turbulent daytime to stable nocturnal conditions. The possible interactions between moth flight activity and the evening boundary layer transition, with favorable wind and temperature conditions leading to massive and potentially successful migration events, as well as the potential impact of climate change on this process, are discussed.
Keywords: moths; migration; forest protection; spruce budworm; Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.); early intervention strategy; modelling; circadian rhythm moths; migration; forest protection; spruce budworm; Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.); early intervention strategy; modelling; circadian rhythm
MDPI and ACS Style

Régnière, J.; Garcia, M.; Saint-Amant, R. Modeling Migratory Flight in the Spruce Budworm: Circadian Rhythm. Forests 2019, 10, 877.

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