A Survey on Star Identification Algorithms
1.1. Topics Covered, Notation, and Figures
- the feature extraction step,
- database search, and
- their utilization of independent pattern features in the star features based on how many stars are used in a pattern.
2. The Beginning
3. Search Process Acceleration
3.1. Search Time Dramatically Reduced
3.2. Novel Grid Algorithm
3.3. Search Time Reduced Much Further
4. Non-dimensional Algorithms
5. Recursive Star Identification
Star Trackers for Different Applications
- Star Gyros. With appropriate algorithms, images from star cameras may also be used for estimating the angular velocity of the spacecraft .
- Multiple Fields-of-View system. While attitude determination from a single star camera image produces very accurate information about the direction of the camera boresight, the estimate of the rotation about the camera’s boresight axis is less accurate. In order to solve this problem, a second star camera is sometimes used. There is another method, which uses a single star camera to record a combination of multiple star images simultaneously. For a two fields-of-view camera the light are preferentially smeared by the optics (e.g., by adding astigmatism) so that stars from one aperture are smeared in a horizontal direction in the image plane, while light from the other aperture is smeared in the vertical direction [38,39]. Image filtering algorithms can detect the direction of the smearing and separate the stars according to which aperture they entered. If, however, the Star-ID technique is very robust to the presence of non-stars, the Star-ID algorithm may be run many times on the same image, perhaps on stars from three apertures, all in orthogonal directions [40,41,42]. In these cases it is possible to separate the stars without the need for smearing the stars in a given direction.
- Techniques requiring multiple images as well as attitude maneuvers have been implemented .
- Uniform Star Catalog. In order to develop optimized star sensing and star identification with respect to continuous operation and reliability, the concept of star catalogs with near uniform angular spacing between stars has been proposed . These catalogs are not characterized by constant magnitude cutoffs. They are reference star catalogs where the expectation of the number of stars that fall in a given field of view is approximately constant (i.e. 5 or 6) (minimum standard deviation), independently which region of the sky the sensor optical axis is pointing.
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Spratling, B.B., IV; Mortari, D. A Survey on Star Identification Algorithms. Algorithms 2009, 2, 93-107. https://doi.org/10.3390/a2010093
Spratling BB IV, Mortari D. A Survey on Star Identification Algorithms. Algorithms. 2009; 2(1):93-107. https://doi.org/10.3390/a2010093Chicago/Turabian Style
Spratling, Benjamin B., IV, and Daniele Mortari. 2009. "A Survey on Star Identification Algorithms" Algorithms 2, no. 1: 93-107. https://doi.org/10.3390/a2010093