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Open AccessArticle

CYK Parsing over Distributed Representations

Department of Enterprise Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Viale del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma, Italy
Department of Information Engineering, University of Padua, via Gradenigo 6/A, 35131 Padova, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Exprivia SpA, Viale del Tintoretto 432, 00142 Roma, Italy.
Algorithms 2020, 13(10), 262;
Received: 9 September 2020 / Revised: 5 October 2020 / Accepted: 9 October 2020 / Published: 15 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020 Selected Papers from Algorithms Editorial Board Members)
Parsing is a key task in computer science, with applications in compilers, natural language processing, syntactic pattern matching, and formal language theory. With the recent development of deep learning techniques, several artificial intelligence applications, especially in natural language processing, have combined traditional parsing methods with neural networks to drive the search in the parsing space, resulting in hybrid architectures using both symbolic and distributed representations. In this article, we show that existing symbolic parsing algorithms for context-free languages can cross the border and be entirely formulated over distributed representations. To this end, we introduce a version of the traditional Cocke–Younger–Kasami (CYK) algorithm, called distributed (D)-CYK, which is entirely defined over distributed representations. D-CYK uses matrix multiplication on real number matrices of a size independent of the length of the input string. These operations are compatible with recurrent neural networks. Preliminary experiments show that D-CYK approximates the original CYK algorithm. By showing that CYK can be entirely performed on distributed representations, we open the way to the definition of recurrent layer neural networks that can process general context-free languages. View Full-Text
Keywords: parsing algorithms; neural networks; distributed representations; formal languages parsing algorithms; neural networks; distributed representations; formal languages
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Zanzotto, F.M.; Satta, G.; Cristini, G. CYK Parsing over Distributed Representations. Algorithms 2020, 13, 262.

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