# Unsteady State Lightweight Iris Certification Based on Multi-Algorithm Parallel Integration

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Multi-Algorithm Parallel Integration Model and Algorithm Prerequisites

#### 2.1. Multi-Algorithm Parallel Integration Model Structure

#### 2.2. Algorithm Structure and Overall Idea Introduction

## 3. Lightweight Unsteady State Constrained Iris Certification

**Image processing layer:**Biometric information focuses on the uniqueness and stability of features, such as the shape and size of facial features in face recognition [30]. The variation of the amount of information in each part of the iris can be used as a unique iris feature [31], because the relative change relationship among the iris key points rarely changes greatly, regardless of the change of the external environment and the acquisition status. Therefore, the stability of the features means that the information measured or obtained is robust to certain distortions.

**Feature recognition layer:**Gabor and Haar are the most commonly used iris feature extraction filters. Their performance has been fully tested, and they have certain iris rotation invariance. Because the method of extracting the information variation law is used in this paper, the Gabor filter and Haar wavelet are more suitable for the image processed by the image processing layer. The Gabor filter performs iris certification by converting the filter direction and frequency into a binary form, which is a carrier code and is more suitable for the Hamming distance model. The Haar wavelet uses the amount of the block information as the iris feature, and the neural network is more suitable for this. The appropriate feature extraction and recognition algorithms are selected for the problem of phase deflection during iris acquisition in the feature recognition layer, and the differences between various categories of irises are improved, the features of the same iris category can be gathered, and the interference of phase deflection can also be suppressed as much as possible.

**Decision layer:**The illumination condition can affect the appearance of iris texture, so that the iris texture change law is not obvious. Although the image processing layer and the feature recognition layer can eliminate some external environmental influences, the algorithm itself is different for the external illumination environment, and the decision layer is different. The function is to set the algorithm to have the maximum number of correct certifications to be the most trusted algorithm in the illumination environment by statistically evaluating the algorithm’s recognition results under certain circumstances in a certain external environments (illumination). The certification result of the algorithm is taken as the final certification result under the illumination condition.

#### 3.1. Image Processing Layer

#### 3.2. Feature Recognition Layer

#### 3.2.1. Gabor + Hamming

_{1}to G

_{16}. Each Gabor processed image G

_{n}is equally divided into 8 × 4 sub-graphs of 32 × 8 dimensions. The sub-graphs are numbered B

_{n-1}~B

_{n-32}. The feature code is set by using the over-threshold judgment method. The determination threshold is set M

_{1}. The average amplitude value T of each sub-graph is compared with M

_{1}(the decision threshold is calculated from the training iris library that meets the prerequisites for this paper, which is the best value for most iris certifications). If the amplitude value is smaller than or equal to M

_{1}, the feature code of this sub-graph is set to 0. If the amplitude value is bigger than or equal to M

_{1}, the feature code of this sub-graph is set to 1. Finally, there is a 512-bit (32 × 16) binary feature code. The Hamming distance between the test iris and the template iris is calculated as a feature similarity. The feature similarity calculation formula of Gabor + Hamming is shown in Equation (4).

#### 3.2.2. Haar + BP

#### 3.3. Decision Layer

## 4. Experiments and Analysis

**Data acquisition:**The JLU iris library of Jilin University, China [36] and CASIA iris library of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China [37] are used in all experiments in this paper. The JLU iris library is collected by the Biometrics and Information Security Technology Laboratory of Jilin University and generated by video screenshots. As of 2019, there are more than 80 categories of irises in the original iris library, and each category has more than 1000 images of various states. The number of images of unsteady irises is still expanding. The CASIA Iris Library is a commonly used iris library in the world of iris recognition and has been released for four generations.

**Experimental external environment:**In the experiments, the CPU frequency is dual-core 2.5 GHz, the memory is 8 GB, and the operating system is Windows.

**Evaluation metrics:**The evaluation indexes are the ROC curve [38] (a curve indicating the relationship between the False Reject Rate (FRR) and the False Accept Rate (FAR)), the Equal Error Rate (EER) (the value where FRR is equal to the FAR), and Correct Recognition Rate (CRR) [39].

**Experimental setup:**The experiments first self-certified the contribution of each layer to the certification and explained the relationship between the algorithm settings of each layer and the actual prerequisites. As set out in Section 4.1, the image processing layer experiment is mainly concerned with the extraction of defocused conditions, and explores the effect of extracted iris texture on iris certification; as set out in Section 4.2, feature recognition layer experiment was mainly designed to conduct tests on iris deflection and explore its impact on iris certification. As explained in Section 4.3, the decision layer experiment aimed mainly to test for the presence or absence of illumination and explore the impact of the statistical decision-making method based on external illumination on iris certification. Finally, a comprehensive experiment is set out in Section 4.4. As set out in Section 4.4.1, the actual effect of the overall model is tested, which can explain how the algorithm structure improves the overall recognition rate in the case where the traditional algorithms are used in each layer. As set out in Section 4.4.2, the performance of the algorithm is analyzed by comparing it to existing algorithms according to the prerequisites of this paper.

#### 4.1. Image Processing Layer Experiment

#### 4.2. Feature Recognition Layer Experiment

- The iris recognition algorithm based on Zernike moment phase feature [40];
- The iris recognition algorithm based on deep learning architecture [41];
- The iris recognition algorithm based on statistically characteristic center symmetric local binary pattern (SCCS-LBP) [42];
- The secondary iris recognition algorithm based on BP neural networks [11];
- The iris recognition algorithm based on cross-spectral matching [43];
- Iris recognition based on the Gabor + Hamming algorithm in the recognition layer of this study;
- Iris recognition based on the Haar + BP algorithm in the recognition layer of this study.

#### 4.3. Decision Layer Experiment

#### 4.4. Certification Structure of Comprehensive Effect Experiment

#### 4.4.1. Meaning of Tightness Degree for Each Layer

#### 4.4.2. Existing Method Comparison Experiment

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Results of each step of the iris-processing stage: (

**a**) quality qualified image; (

**b**) iris area (two inner regions of the white ring); (

**c**) normalized image; (

**d**) enhanced image; (

**e**) recognition area.

**Figure 3.**Examples of eye images of the same person at different shooting times: (

**a**,

**b**) clear grayscale image with normal light conditions; (

**c**,

**d**) clear grayscale image with darker and brighter light conditions, respectively; (

**e**,

**f**) blurred grayscale images.

**Figure 5.**Unsteady change of constrained iris texture taken by the same person: (

**a**) normal; (

**b**) normal illumination clear and undeflected; (

**c**) normal illumination blur and deflected; (

**d**) dark illumination clear and undeflected.

**Figure 7.**Original image and six different filtered processed images: (

**a**) Iris original image; (

**b**) Gaussian filter; (

**c**) Square filter; (

**d**) Median filter; (

**e**) Bilateral filter; (

**f**) Equalization histogram; (

**g**) Laplacian of Gaussian.

**Figure 8.**Six feature difference images: (

**a**) Gaussian filter; (

**b**) Square filter; (

**c**) Median filter; (

**d**) Bilateral filter; (

**e**) Equalization histogram; (

**f**) Laplacian of Gaussian.

**Figure 9.**Stable feature recognition area of the same category and different category: (

**a**) same category 1; (

**b**) same category 2; (

**c**) different category.

**Figure 10.**Haar wavelet and the block of each sub-blocks: (

**a**) Haar wavelet; (

**b**) Sub-block distribution of G1; (

**c**) Sub-block distribution of G2; (

**d**) Sub-block distribution of G3.

Category Number | Iris Images per Category | Total Number of Images | Matches within Category | Matches outside Category | Total Number of Matches |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

100 | 10 | 1000 | 1600 | 5130 | 6730 |

No Processing | Gaussian Filtering | Log Operator and Equalization Histogram | Ensemble Model | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

CRR | EER | CRR | EER | CRR | EER | CRR | EER |

97.45% | 2.88% | 98.76% | 1.43% | 99.03% | 0.89% | 99.41% | 0.48% |

Category Number | Iris Images in per Category | Total Number of Images | Matches within Category | Matches outside Category | Total Number of Matches |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

50 | 100 | 5000 | 8765 | 20623 | 29388 |

Zernike | Deep Learning Architecture | SCCS-LBP | Gabor + Hamming | ||||

CRR | EER | CRR | EER | CRR | EER | CRR | EER |

98.73% | 1.47% | 96.78% | 3.58% | 97.43% | 2.63% | 97.79% | 2.31% |

Secondary Iris Recognition | Cross-Spectral Matching | Ensemble Model | Haar + BP | ||||

CRR | EER | CRR | EER | CRR | EER | CRR | EER |

99.14% | 0.84% | 97.98% | 2.05% | 99.48% | 0.57% | 98.18% | 1.79% |

Category Number | Iris Images in per Category | Total Number of Images | Matches within Category | Matches outside Category | Total Number of Matches |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

100 | 20 | 2000 | 2645 | 8156 | 10801 |

Decision Voting | Posterior Probability Decision | Cumulative Sums and Majority Vote | Ensemble Model | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

CRR | EER | CRR | EER | CRR | EER | CRR | EER |

98.42% | 1.81% | 97.83% | 2.64% | 95.76% | 4.54% | 99.18% | 0.72% |

Iris Library | Category Number | Iris Images in per Category | Total Number of Images | Matches within Category | Matches Outside Category | Total Number of Matches |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

CASIA-V1 | 120 | 5 | 600 | 1200 | 6000 | 7200 |

Iris-Interval | 200 | 5 | 1000 | 2000 | 5460 | 7460 |

Iris-Lamp | 400 | 5 | 2000 | 3500 | 6500 | 10000 |

CASIA-V1 | CASIA-Iris-Interval | CASIA-Iris-Lamp | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

CRR | EER | CRR | EER | CRR | EER |

99.78% | 0.38% | 99.37% | 0.52% | 99.13% | 0.85% |

Iris library | CASIA-V1 | CASIA-Iris-Interval | CASIA-Iris-Lamp |
---|---|---|---|

Deep learning neural network [47] | 76.68% | 74.69% | 79.84% |

Evidence theory certification by clustering method [48] | 86.45% | 83.78% | 81.76% |

Traditional convolutional neural network [49] | 83.12% | 85.46% | 78.42% |

Decision particle swarm optimization algorithm and stable feature [50] | 91.23% | 90.75% | 88.73% |

Multi-feature weighted fusion [51] | 69.75% | 70.86% | 73.42% |

VGG16 [52] | 80.74% | 83.47% | 84.23% |

Faster R-CNN Inception Resnet V2 [53] | 93.42% | 87.65% | 94.31% |

Algorithm in this paper | 99.78% | 99.37% | 99.13% |

© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Shuai, L.; Yuanning, L.; Xiaodong, Z.; Kuo, Z.; Tong, D.; Xinlong, L.; Chaoqun, W. Unsteady State Lightweight Iris Certification Based on Multi-Algorithm Parallel Integration. *Algorithms* **2019**, *12*, 194.
https://doi.org/10.3390/a12090194

**AMA Style**

Shuai L, Yuanning L, Xiaodong Z, Kuo Z, Tong D, Xinlong L, Chaoqun W. Unsteady State Lightweight Iris Certification Based on Multi-Algorithm Parallel Integration. *Algorithms*. 2019; 12(9):194.
https://doi.org/10.3390/a12090194

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Shuai, Liu, Liu Yuanning, Zhu Xiaodong, Zhang Kuo, Ding Tong, Li Xinlong, and Wang Chaoqun. 2019. "Unsteady State Lightweight Iris Certification Based on Multi-Algorithm Parallel Integration" *Algorithms* 12, no. 9: 194.
https://doi.org/10.3390/a12090194