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Preparation of a Carbon Doped Tissue-Mimicking Material with High Dielectric Properties for Microwave Imaging Application

Department of Electrical Engineering and Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, Institute of Microelectronics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Medical Devices and Opto-Electronics Equipment Department, Metal Industries Research and Development Center, Kaohsiung City 811, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Materials Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung County 912, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frank A. Müller
Materials 2016, 9(7), 559;
Received: 30 April 2016 / Revised: 6 July 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 9 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired and Biomimetic Materials)
PDF [4775 KB, uploaded 9 July 2016]


In this paper, the oil-in-gelatin based tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs) doped with carbon based materials including carbon nanotube, graphene ink or lignin were prepared. The volume percent for gelatin based mixtures and oil based mixtures were both around 50%, and the doping amounts were 2 wt %, 4 wt %, and 6 wt %. The effect of doping material and amount on the microwave dielectric properties including dielectric constant and conductivity were investigated over an ultra-wide frequency range from 2 GHz to 20 GHz. The coaxial open-ended reflection technology was used to evaluate the microwave dielectric properties. Six measured values in different locations of each sample were averaged and the standard deviations of all the measured dielectric properties, including dielectric constant and conductivity, were less than one, indicating a good uniformity of the prepared samples. Without doping, the dielectric constant was equal to 23 ± 2 approximately. Results showed with doping of carbon based materials that the dielectric constant and conductivity both increased about 5% to 20%, and the increment was dependent on the doping amount. By proper selection of doping amount of the carbon based materials, the prepared material could map the required dielectric properties of special tissues. The proposed materials were suitable for the phantom used in the microwave medical imaging system. View Full-Text
Keywords: dielectric property; oil-in-gelatin; microwave image; tissue-mimicking material (TMM); carbon dielectric property; oil-in-gelatin; microwave image; tissue-mimicking material (TMM); carbon

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Lan, S.-W.; Weng, M.-H.; Yang, R.-Y.; Chang, S.-J.; Chung, Y.-S.; Yu, T.-C.; Wu, C.-S. Preparation of a Carbon Doped Tissue-Mimicking Material with High Dielectric Properties for Microwave Imaging Application. Materials 2016, 9, 559.

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