Role of Chloride in the Corrosion and Fracture Behavior of Micro-Alloyed Steel in E80 Simulated Fuel Grade Ethanol Environment
2. Experimental Details
2.1. Materials and Test Environments
2.2. Immersion Tests
2.3. Electrochemical Measurements
2.4. Visual Examination and Determination of Corrosion Rate
2.5. Tensile and Fracture Mechanics Tests
2.6. Microstructure, Fractography and Physical Characterizations
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Effect of Chloride on Mass Loss of MAS in E80
3.2. Effect of Chloride on Polarization Behavior of MAS in E80
3.3. Characterization of the Oxide Layers Formed on MAS Exposed to E80
3.4. Effect of Chloride on Fracture Behavior of MAS in E80
3.4.1. Effect of Chloride on the Load-Displacement Plots of MAS
3.4.2. Effect of Chloride on Fracture Toughness of MAS
3.4.3. Effect of Chloride on Widths of Stretch Zones
- The mass loss of MAS increased in the presence of chloride up to a threshold concentration of 32 mg/L. The ANOVA test further confirms, at 90% confidence, that there is no significant difference between 0, 32 and 64 mg/L NaCl concentrations on the corrosion rate of MAS.
- Chloride caused pitting in MAS after immersion in E80 with chloride. In the absence of chloride, there was no pitting.
- MAS did not demonstrate distinct passivation behavior as well as pitting potential with anodic polarization in the range of the ethanol-chloride ratio.
- The fracture resistance of MAS reduced in E80 with increasing chloride and with respect to tests in the absence of chloride.
- Crack tip blunting decreased with increasing chloride, thus accounting for a reduction in fracture toughness. In addition, the nature of the variation of Jstr with the chloride concentration in E80 is similar to that of Ji, which therefore qualifies the use of SZW in determining the initiation fracture toughness of MAS in E80.
Conflicts of Interest
American Petroleum Institute
American Standard for Testing Materials
Instantaneous area under the load-plastic load line displacement curve in fracture toughness test
Instantaneous crack length, original crack length, crack extension
Specimen thickness, Net specimen thickness
Un-cracked ligament, at the start of test and at (i − 1)th step
Crack opening displacement
Crack tip opening displacement
Tearing slope at critical crack extension
Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics
Uniform elongation, Total elongation
|J0.2, JIC, Jpl, Jstr|
An energy based fracture parameter determined at 0.2 mm crack extension, qualified as plane strain fracture toughness, plastic part of fracture toughness, fracture toughness measured from stretch zone
Instantaneous stress intensity factor
Threshold stress intensity factor for SCC
Strain hardening exponent
Notched- slow strain rate
Open circuit potential
Renewable fuels association
Stress corrosion cracking
Saturated calomel electrode
Scanning electron microscope
Simulated fuel grade ethanol
Slow strain rate testing
Stretch zone width
Stress intensity factor range
|, σYS, σUTS|
Flow stress, Yield stress, Ultimate tensile stress
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|Ethanol (Vol %)||Methanol (Vol %)||Water (Vol %)||NaCl (mg/L)||Acetic Acid (mg/L)|
|Sample||σYS (MPa)||σUTS (MPa)||eu (%)||eT (%)||n#||Log k||Hv*|
|Source of Variation||Sum of Squares||Degree of Freedom||Mean Square||Mean Square Ratio (MSR)||Min. MSR at 90% Confidence|
|Solution Chemistry||Ecorr (mV)||icorr-estimate (A/cm2)||Corrosion Rate (mpy)|
|E80 + 0 mg/L NaCl||−3.93 × 102||7.99 × 105||3.56 × 101|
|E80 + 32 mg/L NaCl||−4.13 × 102||8.27 × 105||3.69 × 101|
|E80 + 64 mg/L NaCl||−4.38 × 102||7.61 × 108||3.39 × 101|
|E80 + 0 mg/L NaCl||27||379||435||7.94||9.14||11.48||0.85|
|E80 + 32 mg/L NaCl||27||379||306||8.00||9.06||8.07||0.97|
|E80 + 64 mg/L NaCl||27||379||250||7.94||9.15||6.60||0.74|
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