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Open AccessArticle

Nitric Acid-Treated Carbon Fibers with Enhanced Hydrophilicity for Candida tropicalis Immobilization in Xylitol Fermentation

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School of Biological Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001, China
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College of Textile, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001, China
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School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453001, China
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State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Klara Hernadi
Materials 2016, 9(3), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9030206
Received: 24 January 2016 / Revised: 4 March 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
Nitric acid (HNO3)-treated carbon fiber (CF) rich in hydrophilic groups was applied as a cell-immobilized carrier for xylitol fermentation. Using scanning electron microscopy, we characterized the morphology of the HNO3-treated CF. Additionally, we evaluated the immobilized efficiency (IE) of Candida tropicalis and xylitol fermentation yield by investigating the surface properties of nitric acid treated CF, specifically, the acidic group content, zero charge point, degree of moisture and contact angle. We found that adhesion is the major mechanism for cell immobilization and that it is greatly affected by the hydrophilic–hydrophilic surface properties. In our experiments, we found 3 hto be the optimal time for treating CF with nitric acid, resulting in an improved IE of Candida tropicalis of 0.98 g∙g−1 and the highest xylitol yield and volumetric productivity (70.13% and 1.22 g∙L−1∙h−1, respectively). The HNO3-treated CF represents a promising method for preparing biocompatible biocarriers for multi-batch fermentation. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon fiber (CF); oxidation treatment; surface properties; cell immobilization; xylitol fermentation carbon fiber (CF); oxidation treatment; surface properties; cell immobilization; xylitol fermentation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.; Liu, N.; Guo, Z.; Wu, D.; Chen, W.; Chang, Z.; Yuan, Q.; Hui, M.; Wang, J. Nitric Acid-Treated Carbon Fibers with Enhanced Hydrophilicity for Candida tropicalis Immobilization in Xylitol Fermentation. Materials 2016, 9, 206.

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