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Open AccessArticle

Microstructure and Characteristics of Calcium Phosphate Layers on Bioactive Oxide Surfaces of Air-Sintered Titanium Foams after Immersion in Simulated Body Fluid

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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 51591, Taiwan
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Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601, Taiwan
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Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 51591, Taiwan
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Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Fiedler
Materials 2016, 9(12), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9120956
Received: 12 October 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
We propose a simple and low-cost process for the preparation of porous Ti foams through a sponge replication method using single-step air sintering at various temperatures. In this study, the apatite-forming ability of air-sintered Ti samples after 21 days of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) was investigated. The microstructures of the prepared Ca–P deposits were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In contrast to the control sample sintered in vacuum, which was found to have the simple hexagonal α-Ti phase, the air-sintered samples contained only the rutile phase. High intensities of XRD peaks for rutile TiO2 were obtained with samples sintered at 1000 °C. Moreover, the air-sintered Ti samples had a greater apatite-forming ability than that of the Ti sample sintered in vacuum. Ti samples sintered at 900 and 1000 °C had large aggregated spheroidal particles on their surfaces after immersion in SBF for 21 days. Combined XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and TEM results suggest that the calcium phosphate deposited on the rutile TiO2 surfaces consist of carbonated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite instead of octacalcium phosphate. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium foam; microstructure; bioactive; hydroxyapatite; simulated body fluid (SBF) titanium foam; microstructure; bioactive; hydroxyapatite; simulated body fluid (SBF)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, H.-B.; Hsu, H.-C.; Wu, S.-C.; Hsu, S.-K.; Wang, P.-H.; Ho, W.-F. Microstructure and Characteristics of Calcium Phosphate Layers on Bioactive Oxide Surfaces of Air-Sintered Titanium Foams after Immersion in Simulated Body Fluid. Materials 2016, 9, 956.

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