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On the Determination of Magnesium Degradation Rates under Physiological Conditions
Open AccessArticle

µXRF Elemental Mapping of Bioresorbable Magnesium-Based Implants in Bone

Atominstitut, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, Vienna 1020, Austria
Institute of Physics and Materials Science, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Peter-Jordan-Straße 82, Vienna 1190, Austria
Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 4, Zurich 8093, Switzerland
Department of Orthopaedics and Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 5, Graz 8036, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Regine Willumeit-Römer
Materials 2016, 9(10), 811;
Received: 20 August 2016 / Revised: 24 September 2016 / Accepted: 26 September 2016 / Published: 30 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Degradable Biomaterials Based on Magnesium Alloys)
This study investigated the distribution of the elemental constituents of Mg-based implants at various stages of the degradation process in surrounding bone tissue, with a focus on magnesium (Mg), as the main component of the alloy, and yttrium (Y), due to its potential adverse health effects. The measurements were performed on the implant-bearing thin sections of rat bone in a time series of implant degradation between one and 18 months. Micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (μXRF) with a special spectrometer meeting the requirements for the measurements of low-Z elements was used. It was found that the migration and accumulation behaviour of implant degradation products is element-specific. A sharp decrease in Mg was observed in the immediate vicinity of the interface and no specific accumulation or aggregation of Mg in the adjacent bone tissue was detected. By contrast, Y was found to migrate further into the bone over time and to remain in the tissue even after the complete degradation of the implant. Although the nature of Y accumulations must still be clarified, its potential health impact should be considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: elemental imaging; yttrium; magnesium; biodegradable Mg implants; bone; µXRF elemental imaging; yttrium; magnesium; biodegradable Mg implants; bone; µXRF
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Turyanskaya, A.; Rauwolf, M.; Grünewald, T.A.; Meischel, M.; Stanzl-Tschegg, S.; Löffler, J.F.; Wobrauschek, P.; Weinberg, A.M.; Lichtenegger, H.C.; Streli, C. µXRF Elemental Mapping of Bioresorbable Magnesium-Based Implants in Bone. Materials 2016, 9, 811.

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