- freely available
Materials 2016, 9(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9010059
2. Results and Discussion
2.1. Thermal Properties and Reliability of PCM-HSB
2.2. Thermal Performance of PCM-HSB Concrete
|Sample No.||The Maximum Temperature (°C)||Maximum Temperate Difference||Time of Peak Temperature (Delay Time)|
2.3. Mechanical Properties
|Sample No.||28 d Compressive Strength (MPa)||Reduction of Compressive Strength in Respect to the Control (%)|
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Materials Required for the Development of Macro-Encapsulated PCM-HSB
|Appearance||Relative Density (g/cm3)||Melting Temperature (°C)||Latent Heat Thermal Energy (J/g)|
|Inner Diameter (mm)||Outer Diameter (mm)||Hole Diameter (mm)||Apparent Density (kg/m3)|
3.2. Preparation of Macro-Encapsulated PCM-HSB
3.3. Test Method for the Characterization of Macro-Encapsulated PCM-HSB
3.3.1. Thermal Capacity of PCM-HSB
3.3.2. Thermal Cycle Test
3.4. Materials and Mix Proportion for Concrete with PCM-HSB
|Aggregate Type||Apparent Density (kg/m3)||Size (mm)|
|Type||Cement (kg)||Water (kg)||Sand (kg)||Gravel (kg)||PCM-HSB (kg)||Admixture (kg)|
3.5. Concrete Mixing
3.6. Test Methods for Determining the Properties of PCM-HSB Concrete
3.6.1. Compressive Strength Test
3.6.2. Thermal Performance of PCM-HSB Concrete Panel Indoor Test
- Each HSB was found to carry up to 80.3% of PCM by mass. The leakage of PCM from the sealed HSB was found to be less than 1% after 1600 cycles of thermal test. The use of a hollow steel ball (HSB) is believed to be an effective macro-encapsulation method to carry PCM, as the thermal conductivity and reliability of the storage system can be enhanced. With such high reliability, PCM-HSB is believed to have a great potential for long-term application in building.
- The compressive strength of PCM-HSB concrete decreased with the increase in PCM-HSB content in the mix. The strength of SC-100% was found to be 22 MPa which is suitable for use as structural materials in construction industry.
- From the self-designed thermal performance setup, it can be concluded that concrete panels incorporated with macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB functions to reduce the peak indoor air temperature and the fluctuation of indoor temperature can be very effective in transferring the heating and cooling loads away from the peak demand times. The significance of these functions was increased with the increase in PCM-HSB contents. In summary, macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB can improve the thermal performance of building materials, especially during the summer, in which the temperature is well above the phase change temperature of the macro-encapsulated PCM.
Conflicts of Interest
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