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Open AccessReview

Recent Progress in Electrochemical HbA1c Sensors: A Review

by Baozhen Wang 1,2 and Jun-ichi Anzai 2,*
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Shandong University, 44 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012, Shandong, China
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Haolin Tang
Materials 2015, 8(3), 1187-1203;
Received: 2 February 2015 / Revised: 4 March 2015 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
This article reviews recent progress made in the development of electrochemical glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) sensors for the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Electrochemical HbA1c sensors are divided into two categories based on the detection protocol of the sensors. The first type of sensor directly detects HbA1c by binding HbA1c on the surface of an electrode through bio-affinity of antibody and boronic acids, followed by an appropriate mode of signal transduction. In the second type of sensor, HbA1c is indirectly determined by detecting a digestion product of HbA1c, fructosyl valine (FV). Thus, the former sensors rely on the selective binding of HbA1c to the surface of the electrodes followed by electrochemical signaling in amperometric, voltammetric, impedometric, or potentiometric mode. Redox active markers, such as ferrocene derivatives and ferricyanide/ferrocyanide ions, are often used for electrochemical signaling. For the latter sensors, HbA1c must be digested in advance by proteolytic enzymes to produce the FV fragment. FV is electrochemically detected through catalytic oxidation by fructosyl amine oxidase or by selective binding to imprinted polymers. The performance characteristics of HbA1c sensors are discussed in relation to their use in the diagnosis and control of diabetic mellitus. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemical sensor; glucose sensor; HbA1c sensor; fructosyl valine sensor; blood glucose; diabetes mellitus electrochemical sensor; glucose sensor; HbA1c sensor; fructosyl valine sensor; blood glucose; diabetes mellitus
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Wang, B.; Anzai, J.-I. Recent Progress in Electrochemical HbA1c Sensors: A Review. Materials 2015, 8, 1187-1203.

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