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Open AccessArticle

Room Temperature Ferromagnetic Mn:Ge(001)

National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105b, Magurele-Ilfov 077125, Romania
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Materials 2014, 7(1), 106-129; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7010106
Received: 27 September 2013 / Revised: 16 December 2013 / Accepted: 16 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spintronics)
We report the synthesis of a room temperature ferromagnetic Mn-Ge system obtained by simple deposition of manganese on Ge(001), heated at relatively high temperature (starting with 250 °C). The samples were characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). Samples deposited at relatively elevated temperature (350 °C) exhibited the formation of ~5–8 nm diameter Mn5Ge3 and Mn11Ge8 agglomerates by HRTEM, while XPS identified at least two Mn-containing phases: the agglomerates, together with a Ge-rich MnGe~2.5 phase, or manganese diluted into the Ge(001) crystal. LEED revealed the persistence of long range order after a relatively high amount of Mn (100 nm) deposited on the single crystal substrate. STM probed the existence of dimer rows on the surface, slightly elongated as compared with Ge–Ge dimers on Ge(001). The films exhibited a clear ferromagnetism at room temperature, opening the possibility of forming a magnetic phase behind a nearly ideally terminated Ge surface, which could find applications in integration of magnetic functionalities on semiconductor bases. SQUID probed the co-existence of a superparamagnetic phase, with one phase which may be attributed to a diluted magnetic semiconductor. The hypothesis that the room temperature ferromagnetic phase might be the one with manganese diluted into the Ge crystal is formulated and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: molecular beam epitaxy (MBE); Mn-Ge ferromagnetism; low energy electron diffraction (LEED); scanning tunneling microscopy (STM); high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); magneto optical Kerr effect (MOKE); superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry; diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) molecular beam epitaxy (MBE); Mn-Ge ferromagnetism; low energy electron diffraction (LEED); scanning tunneling microscopy (STM); high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); magneto optical Kerr effect (MOKE); superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry; diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS)
MDPI and ACS Style

Lungu, G.A.; Stoflea, L.E.; Tanase, L.C.; Bucur, I.C.; Răduţoiu, N.; Vasiliu, F.; Mercioniu, I.; Kuncser, V.; Teodorescu, C.-M. Room Temperature Ferromagnetic Mn:Ge(001). Materials 2014, 7, 106-129.

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