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Open AccessArticle

Bio-based Films from Linter Cellulose and Its Acetates: Formation and Properties

Macromolecular Materials and Lignocellulosic Fibers Group, Center for Research on Science and Technology of BioResources, Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, P.O. Box 780, São Carlos 13560-970, Brazil
Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, P.O. Box 26077, São Paulo 05513-970, Brazil
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2013, 6(6), 2410-2435;
Received: 23 January 2013 / Revised: 29 May 2013 / Accepted: 3 June 2013 / Published: 14 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)
This paper describes the results obtained on the preparation of films composed of linter cellulose and the corresponding acetates. The acetylation was carried out in the LiCl/DMAc solvent system. Films were prepared from a LiCl/DMAc solution of cellulose acetates (degree of substitution, DS 0.8–2.9) mixed with linter cellulose (5, 10 and 15 wt %). Detailed characterization of the films revealed the following: (i) they exhibited fibrous structures on their surfaces. The strong tendency of the linter cellulose chains to aggregate in LiCl/DMAc suggests that these fibrous elements consist of cellulose chains, as can be deduced from SEM images of the film of cellulose proper; (ii) the cellulose acetate films obtained from samples with DS 2.1 and 2.9 exhibited microspheres on the surface, whose formation seems to be favored for acetates with higher DS; (iii) AFM analysis showed that, in general, the presence of cellulose increased both the asperity thickness and the surface roughness of the analyzed films, indicating that cellulose chains are at least partially organized in domains and not molecularly dispersed between acetate chains; and (iv) the films prepared from cellulose and acetates exhibited lower hygroscopicity than the acetate films, also suggesting that the cellulose chains are organized into domains, probably due to strong intermolecular interactions. The linter and sisal acetates (the latter from a prior study), and their respective films, were prepared using the same processes; however, the two sets of films presented more differences (as in humidity absorption, optical, and tensile properties) than similarities (as in some morphological aspects), most likely due to the different properties of the starting materials. Potential applications of the films prepared in tissue engineering scaffold coatings and/or drug delivery are mentioned. View Full-Text
Keywords: bio-based films; linter cellulose; cellulose acetates; LiCl/DMAc solvent system bio-based films; linter cellulose; cellulose acetates; LiCl/DMAc solvent system
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Morgado, D.L.; Rodrigues, B.V.M.; Almeida, E.V.R.; Seoud, O.A.E.; Frollini, E. Bio-based Films from Linter Cellulose and Its Acetates: Formation and Properties. Materials 2013, 6, 2410-2435.

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