Commercial Coffee Wastes as Materials for Adsorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions
2. Materials and Methods
2.2. Types of Coffee Wastes
2.3. Adsorption Experiments
2.3.1. Effect of pH
2.3.2. Effect of Contact Time
2.3.3. Effect of Initial Metal Concentration—Isotherms
2.3.4. Effect of Agitation Rate
2.4. Desorption and Reuse Experiments
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Effect of pH on Adsorption—Characterization
3.2. Effect of Contact Time
|Adsorbate-Adsorbent||Pseudo-first order||Pseudo-second order||Pseudo-third order|
3.3. Effect of Initial Metal Concentration
|Ion-Adsorbent||Langmuir equation||Freundlich equation||L-F equation|
|mg/g||L/mg||–||mg1−1/n L1/n g−1||–||–||mg/g||(L/mg)1/b||–||–|
3.4. Effect of Agitation Rate
3.5. Desorption and Reuse
3.6. Economic Perspectives
- The pH selected as optimum for further adsorption experiments was pH = 5, where the adsorbents presented the maximum removal just before the pH-zone of 5–8 where precipitation and hydrolysis phenomena dominate. The surface charge of the adsorbents was confirmed through the determination of PZC for each material.
- Equilibrium data were fitted to the Lanmguir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich (L-F) model. The best correlation was for L-F model (R2 ~ 0.998).
- Kinetic data were fitted to the pseudo-first, -second and -third order model. The best correlation was for pseudo-first order equation (R2 ~ 0.996).
- The optimum agitation rate for the current adsorption phenomenon was determined to be 140 rpm.
- The optimum pH found after desorption experiments was pH = 2 both for Cu(II) and Cr(VI).
- After 10 cycles of adsorption-desorption, the reduction in adsorption percentages from the 1st to 10th cycle was approximately 7% for both coffee residues and ions.
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Kyzas, G.Z. Commercial Coffee Wastes as Materials for Adsorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions. Materials 2012, 5, 1826-1840. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma5101826
Kyzas GZ. Commercial Coffee Wastes as Materials for Adsorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions. Materials. 2012; 5(10):1826-1840. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma5101826Chicago/Turabian Style
Kyzas, George Z. 2012. "Commercial Coffee Wastes as Materials for Adsorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions" Materials 5, no. 10: 1826-1840. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma5101826