Next Article in Journal
Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics: Manipulation of Fermi Level, Work Function and Energy Band Alignment
Next Article in Special Issue
Recent Progress of Ferroelectric-Gate Field-Effect Transistors and Applications to Nonvolatile Logic and FeNAND Flash Memory
Previous Article in Journal
Ion-Induced Nanoscale Ripple Patterns on Si Surfaces: Theory and Experiment
Open AccessArticle

Mapping Disorder in Polycrystalline Relaxors: A Piezoresponse Force Microscopy Approach

Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering & CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Department of Mechanical Engineering & TEMA, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Institute of Physics of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Kengaraha st., LV-1063 Riga, Latvia
Laboratory Structures, Propriétés et Modélisation des Solides, Ecole Centrale Paris, CNRS, UMR 8580, Grande Voie des Vignes, F-92295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex, France
The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37922, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2010, 3(11), 4860-4870;
Received: 12 September 2010 / Accepted: 22 October 2010 / Published: 28 October 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ferroelectric & Piezoelectric Materials)
Relaxors constitute a large class of ferroelectrics where disorder is introduced by doping with ions of different size and valence, in order to maximize their useful properties in a broad temperature range. Polarization disorder in relaxors is typically studied by dielectric and scattering techniques that do not allow direct mapping of relaxor parameters, such as correlation length or width of the relaxation time spectrum. In this paper, we introduce a novel method based on measurements of local vibrations by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) that detects nanoscale polarization on the relaxor surface. Random polarization patterns are then analyzed via local Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the FFT PFM parameters, such as amplitude, correlation radius and width of the spectrum of spatial correlations, are mapped along with the conventional topography. The results are tested with transparent (Pb, La) (Zr, Ti)O3 ceramics where local disorder is due to doping with La3+. The conclusions are made about the distribution of the defects responsible for relaxor behavior and the role of the grain boundaries in the macroscopic response. View Full-Text
Keywords: PLZT; relaxors; Piezoresponse Force Microscopy; domains; grains PLZT; relaxors; Piezoresponse Force Microscopy; domains; grains
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kholkin, A.L.; Kiselev, D.A.; Bdikin, I.K.; Sternberg, A.; Dkhil, B.; Jesse, S.; Ovchinnikov, O.; Kalinin, S.V. Mapping Disorder in Polycrystalline Relaxors: A Piezoresponse Force Microscopy Approach. Materials 2010, 3, 4860-4870.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop