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Open AccessArticle

Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics: Manipulation of Fermi Level, Work Function and Energy Band Alignment

1
Darmstadt University of Technology, Deptment of Materials- and Earth Sciences, Surface Science Division, Petersenstrasse 32, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
2
Northwestern University, Deptment of Materials Science and Engineering, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2010, 3(11), 4892-4914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma3114892
Received: 25 September 2010 / Accepted: 25 October 2010 / Published: 2 November 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Materials)
Doping limits, band gaps, work functions and energy band alignments of undoped and donor-doped transparent conducting oxides Zn0, In2O3, and SnO2 as accessed by X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/UPS) are summarized and compared. The presented collection provides an extensive data set of technologically relevant electronic properties of photovoltaic transparent electrode materials and illustrates how these relate to the underlying defect chemistry, the dependence of surface dipoles on crystallographic orientation and/or surface termination, and Fermi level pinning. View Full-Text
Keywords: transparent conducting oxides; work function; doping; band alignment; solar cells transparent conducting oxides; work function; doping; band alignment; solar cells
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Klein, A.; Körber, C.; Wachau, A.; Säuberlich, F.; Gassenbauer, Y.; Harvey, S.P.; Proffit, D.E.; Mason, T.O. Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics: Manipulation of Fermi Level, Work Function and Energy Band Alignment. Materials 2010, 3, 4892-4914.

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