Usage of Converter Gas as a Substitute Fuel for a Tunnel Furnace in Steelworks
- justification of converter gas to be used as a substitute fuel in the steel manufacturing process,
- tools for modeling and chemistry reduction methods, which can be implemented for converter gas modeling with the aid of a skeletal combustion mechanism.
- testing and verification of a skeletal reduced kinetic combustion mechanism obtained with the aid of the DRGEP method,
- modeling combustion of BOFG in a tunnel furnace with aid of this tested and verified mechanism with a focus on ecological aspects,
- economic benefits from applying the BOFG to the tunnel furnace.
- the advantage of detailed mechanisms is the high accuracy and detail of the results obtained, and the disadvantage is the extended calculation time and associated procedure costs;
- the advantage of simplified mechanisms is the short calculation time, and the disadvantage is the lower accuracy of the results obtained;
- advantages of skeletal mechanisms include: the same accuracy of results as for detailed models and much shorter computation time.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Experimental Setup
2.2. Calculation Procedure
- pressure of 1 atm;
- initial temperature of 298 K;
- equivalence ratio of 0.7–1.1;
- residence time of 0.001–100 s.
2.3. Testing and Verification of the RKM_Konnov 0.6 Mechanism
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Ecological Aspect of Use of BOFG
- constant furnace power P = 7 MWth;
- BOFG composition: 3% H2, 64% CO, 15% CO2, and 18% N2;
3.2. Economic Aspect of the Use of BOFG
- Combustion kinetic mechanism RKM_Konnov 0.6 was found as a reliable tool for modeling converter gas (BOFG) in a tunnel furnace. The validation procedure was conducted on a real test bed working on natural gas. Good conformity between numerical and experimental data was obtained.
- Simulations of converter gas combustion carried out for the current operating parameters of the tunnel furnace show promising results for nitric oxide emission. NO at the exit of the furnace was found to be more than three times lower in comparison with the NO emission from the combustion of natural gas in this furnace.
- Carbon dioxide emission was nearly three times higher from the combustion of converter gas if compared to natural gas. However, one should note that converter gas is a by-product from steel manufacturing and due to its high CO content (over 60%) it cannot be released into the ambient air. Therefore, converter gas is combusted and CO2 is formed anyway. The proposed idea was to utilize converter gas as substitute for of natural gas. Thus, the CO2 reduction comes from eliminating natural gas from fueling a tunnel furnace.
- By applying BOFG instead of natural gas for heating a tunnel furnace, it should bring significant financial savings regarding gas purchasing costs.
- Taking the above into account, BOFG, due to its high energy potential, may become an attractive fuel, even though it contains a high carbon fraction in CO and CO2.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Parameters||Zone No. and Furnace Length (m)|
|Gas flowrate, ,||0.068||0.035||0.026||0.019||0.031||0.016|
|Air flowrate, ,||0.681||0.353||0.256||0.186||0.261||0.136|
|Temperature of steel sheets,||1113||1153||1173||1193||1193||1193|
|Excess air ratio,||1.05||1.05||1.05||1.05||0.90||0.90|
|Parameters||Zone No. and Furnace Length (m)|
|Gas flowrate, ,||0.292||0.151||0.110||0.079||0.130||0.068|
|Air flowrate, ,||0.489||0.253||0.184||0.134||0.187||0.098|
|Excess air ratio,||1.05||1.05||1.05||1.05||0.90||0.90|
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Musial, D.; Szwaja, M.; Kurtyka, M.; Szwaja, S. Usage of Converter Gas as a Substitute Fuel for a Tunnel Furnace in Steelworks. Materials 2022, 15, 5054. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15145054
Musial D, Szwaja M, Kurtyka M, Szwaja S. Usage of Converter Gas as a Substitute Fuel for a Tunnel Furnace in Steelworks. Materials. 2022; 15(14):5054. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15145054Chicago/Turabian Style
Musial, Dorota, Magdalena Szwaja, Marek Kurtyka, and Stanislaw Szwaja. 2022. "Usage of Converter Gas as a Substitute Fuel for a Tunnel Furnace in Steelworks" Materials 15, no. 14: 5054. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15145054