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Open AccessArticle

Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Hybrid, Additively Manufactured Ti6Al4V after Thermomechanical Processing

1
Access e.V., Intzestraße 5, 52072 Aachen, Germany
2
Otto Fuchs KG, Derschlager Straße 26, 58540 Meinerzhagen, Germany
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Brandenburg University of Technology, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 17, 03046 Cottbus, Germany
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Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology (ILT), Steinbachstraße 15, 52074 Aachen, Germany
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ETH Zürich, Technoparkstrasse 1, 8005 Zürich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonino Recca
Materials 2021, 14(4), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14041039
Received: 22 January 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
In the present study, we propose a hybrid manufacturing route to produce high-quality Ti6Al4V parts, combining additive powder laser directed energy deposition (L-DED) for manufacturing of preforms, with subsequent hot forging as a thermomechanical processing (TMP) step. After L-DED, the material was hot formed at two different temperatures (930 °C and 1070 °C) and subsequently heat-treated for stress relief annealing. Tensile tests were performed on small sub-samples, taking into account different sample orientations with respect to the L-DED build direction and resulting in very good tensile strengths and ductility properties, similar or superior to the forged material. The resulting microstructure consists of very fine grained, partially globularized alpha grains, with a mean diameter ~0.8–2.3 µm, within a beta phase matrix, constituting between 2 and 9% of the sample. After forging in the sub-beta transus temperature range, the typical L-DED microstructure was no longer discernible and the anisotropy in tensile properties, common in additive manufacturing (AM), was significantly reduced. However, forging in the super-beta transus temperature range resulted in remaining anisotropies in the mechanical properties as well as an inferior tensile strength and ductility of the material. It was shown, that by combining L-DED with thermomechanical processing in the sub-beta transus temperature range of Ti6Al4V, a suitable microstructure and desirable mechanical properties for many applications can be obtained, with the advantage of reducing the material waste. View Full-Text
Keywords: laser directed energy deposition (L-DED); thermomechanical processing (TMP); Ti6Al4V; hybrid manufacturing laser directed energy deposition (L-DED); thermomechanical processing (TMP); Ti6Al4V; hybrid manufacturing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hemes, S.; Meiners, F.; Sizova, I.; Hama-Saleh, R.; Röhrens, D.; Weisheit, A.; Häfner, C.L.; Bambach, M. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Hybrid, Additively Manufactured Ti6Al4V after Thermomechanical Processing. Materials 2021, 14, 1039. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14041039

AMA Style

Hemes S, Meiners F, Sizova I, Hama-Saleh R, Röhrens D, Weisheit A, Häfner CL, Bambach M. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Hybrid, Additively Manufactured Ti6Al4V after Thermomechanical Processing. Materials. 2021; 14(4):1039. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14041039

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hemes, Susanne; Meiners, Frank; Sizova, Irina; Hama-Saleh, Rebar; Röhrens, Daniel; Weisheit, Andreas; Häfner, Constantin L.; Bambach, Markus. 2021. "Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Hybrid, Additively Manufactured Ti6Al4V after Thermomechanical Processing" Materials 14, no. 4: 1039. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14041039

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