The ever-growing field of materials with applications in the biomedical field holds great promise regarding the design and fabrication of devices with specific characteristics, especially scaffolds with personalized geometry and architecture. The continuous technological development pushes the limits of innovation in obtaining adequate scaffolds and establishing their characteristics and performance. To this end, computed tomography (CT) proved to be a reliable, nondestructive, high-performance machine, enabling visualization and structure analysis at submicronic resolutions. CT allows both qualitative and quantitative data of the 3D model, offering an overall image of its specific architectural features and reliable numerical data for rigorous analyses. The precise engineering of scaffolds consists in the fabrication of objects with well-defined morphometric parameters (e.g., shape, porosity, wall thickness) and in their performance validation through thorough control over their behavior (in situ visualization, degradation, new tissue formation, wear, etc.). This review is focused on the use of CT in biomaterial science with the aim of qualitatively and quantitatively assessing the scaffolds’ features and monitoring their behavior following in vivo or in vitro experiments. Furthermore, the paper presents the benefits and limitations regarding the employment of this technique when engineering materials with applications in the biomedical field.
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