Process Chain Development for the Fabrication of ThreeDimensional Braided Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composites
Abstract
:1. Introduction
2. Materials and Methods
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Results and Discussion—Textile Development
3.1.1. Winding Process Design
3.1.2. Bobbin Development
3.1.3. Fiber Damage Influences on the Bobbin
3.1.4. Concept
3.1.5. Component Design
3.1.6. Braiding Ring
3.2. Results and Discussion—Fiber Composite Ceramics
4. Conclusions
Author Contributions
Funding
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Acknowledgments
Conflicts of Interest
References
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FibertoFiber Friction as a Result of a NonTangential PullOff from the Coil  
Coulomb formula  Solutions and partial solutions:
 
${\mathrm{F}}_{\mathrm{Rigid}}=\mathsf{\mu}\text{}\xb7{\text{}\mathrm{F}}_{\mathrm{N}}$  (2)  
Yarn Damage Due to Friction as a Result of Deflection at Yarn Guiding Elements  
Rolling resistance force  Solutions and partial solutions:
 
${\mathrm{F}}_{\mathrm{Roll}}={\mathrm{c}}_{\mathrm{r}}\text{}\xb7{\text{}\mathrm{F}}_{\mathrm{N}}$  (3)  
Euler–Eytelwein formula  
${\mathrm{F}}_{\mathrm{After}}{=\mathrm{F}}_{\mathrm{Before}}\text{}\xb7\text{}\left({\mathrm{e}}^{\mathsf{\mu}\mathsf{\gamma}}\text{}1\right)$  (4)  
Yarn Damage Due to Mass Inertia, Bearing and GearRelated Frictional Resistance  
Dynamic force balance  Solutions and partial solutions:
 
${\mathrm{F}}_{\mathrm{Fiber}}=\frac{{\mathrm{J}}_{\mathrm{S}}}{\mathrm{r}}\text{}{\xb7\ddot{\mathsf{\phi}}}_{\mathrm{S}}+\mathrm{c}{\left(\mathsf{\phi}\right)}^{\prime}\text{}\xb7\text{}\mathsf{\phi}$  (5)  
Filament Ring Formation During Unwinding  
Solutions and partial solutions:

Designation  Lower Value (−)  /  Upper Value (+)  Maximum Thread Tension Force  Minimum Thread Tension Force  Settling Length  

Pulloff speed  v_{A}  0 m/min  →  0.38 m/min  +  +  / 
Horn gear speed  n_{F}  3.75 min^{−1}  →  50 min^{−1}  +  +  + 
Spring thickness  c_{F}  0.12 mm  →  0.15 mm  +  +  + 
Yarn eye deflection  l_{F}  0 mm  →  38 mm    /  / 
Rotatability  ω_{F}  =0 min^{−1}  →  ≠0 min^{−1}    /  / 
Friction Body Material (mat.)  Friction Body Diameter (d_{F})  Fiber Force (F_{F})  PullOff Speed (v_{A}) 

Polished stainless steel (VA)  10 mm  1 N  0.25 m/min 
VA with diamondlike carbon (DLC)  30 mm  2 N  1.25 m/min 
VA with titanium carbonitride (TiCN)  50 mm  4 N  2.5 m/min 
VA with Topocrom Nr. 131 (TOP)  70 mm 
Spring Strength (g/ N)  100 g/1 N  200 g/2 N  

Braiding Angle (°)  30°  45°  60°  30°  45°  60° 
Vibrator off, ILSS (MPa)  14.8 ± 1.0 MPa  13.0 ± 1.1 MPa  11.8 ± 1.0 MPa  13.8 ± 1.1 MPa  12.0 ± 2.2 MPa  10.7 ± 2.7 MPa 
Vibrator on, ILSS (MPa)  14.1 ± 1.1 MPa  12.1 ± 1.7 MPa  11.1 ± 1.6 MPa  14.8 ± 0.3 MPa  12.1 ± 0.9 MPa  11.1 ± 1.1 MPa 
Test Series  ILSS (MPa)  Flexural Strength (MPa)  Fiber Volume Content (%)  ZFiber Content (%)  Braiding Angle 

Sample 1  21.7 ± 4.8  354 ± 48  26.0  7.2  30° 
Sample 2  23.7 ± 3.3  358 ± 53  26.1  10.6  30° 
Sample 3  24.3 ± 1.7  374 ± 64  27.2  13.1  30° 
Textile Type  Fiber Angle (°)  Fiber Volume Content (%)  Flexural Strength (MPa)  ILSS (MPa)  ZFiber Content (%) 

Twodimensional woven fabric  0/90°  38.1%  220 ± 19 MPa  12.4 ± 2.4 MPa  0% 
Twodimensional braid  30°  30.2%  216 ± 47 MPa  14.8 ± 1.0 MPa  1.5% 
Threedimensional braid  30°  27.2%  374 ± 64 MPa  24.3 ± 1.7 MPa  13.1% 
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Kolloch, M.; Puchas, G.; Grigat, N.; Vollbrecht, B.; Krenkel, W.; Gries, T. Process Chain Development for the Fabrication of ThreeDimensional Braided Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composites. Materials 2021, 14, 6338. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216338
Kolloch M, Puchas G, Grigat N, Vollbrecht B, Krenkel W, Gries T. Process Chain Development for the Fabrication of ThreeDimensional Braided Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composites. Materials. 2021; 14(21):6338. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216338
Chicago/Turabian StyleKolloch, Martin, Georg Puchas, Niels Grigat, Ben Vollbrecht, Walter Krenkel, and Thomas Gries. 2021. "Process Chain Development for the Fabrication of ThreeDimensional Braided Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composites" Materials 14, no. 21: 6338. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216338