Effect of Laser Processing Parameters on Microstructure, Hardness and Tribology of NiCrCoFeCBSi/WC Coatings
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Effect of Processing Parameters on Pass Geometry and Cracks
3.1.1. Effect of Laser Current and Operating Speed on Pass Geometry
3.1.2. Effect of Power Density and Processing Speed on Coatings’ Cracking
3.2. Microstructural Analysis
3.2.1. Brief Characterization of As-Sprayed Coating
3.2.2. Microstructure of Laser-Processed Coatings
3.3. Hardness of Laser-Processed Coatings
3.4. Tribology of Laser-Processed Coatings
- The laser peak power density between 4.00 × 106 and 5.71 × 106 W/cm2 and laser operating speed between 100 and 400 mm/min provided processing of flame-sprayed NiCrCoFeCSiB/WC coatings in a melting mode. The width of individual pass changed insignificantly with varying laser processing parameters and ranged between 1050 and 1150 μm (exception—the regime at the lowest power density and heat input); the depth of pass was in strong near-linear dependence on both the power and speed and ranged between ~290 and ~1330 μm.
- The laser-processed coating most sensitive to cracking was obtained at the highest power density, 5.71 × 106 W/cm2, and the lowest operating speed, 100 mm/min. A significant reduction in cracks appearance was observed with reducing power density.
- The pulsed laser processing provides a monolithic remelted coating layer with a microstructure of W-rich dendrites in Ni-based matrix, where size and distribution of W-rich dendrites periodically vary across remelted layer depth. The composition of W-rich dendrites of different sizes and shapes does not differ significantly and can be attributed to a carbide of type (W, Cr, Ni, Fe)C.
- The prevailing of difference in size microstructure in coatings laser-processed at different parameters led to a slight variation in microhardness from ~1070 to ~1140 HK0.2, that is ~20–30% higher compared with coatings remelted using conventional techniques, such as flame, furnace, or induction heating, and is comparable with the best results reported for laser cladding (1200 HV0.2). The trend of a slight coatings hardness increase at higher laser processing speed and lower laser power density was established.
- The friction coefficient and wear rate of coatings during dry sliding were reduced by up to ~30% and up to ~2.4 times, respectively, after laser processing.
- Very small melting depth (~300 μm) resulted in a less-uniform carbide phase distribution, formation of noncompletely remelted coating surface, and increased friction coefficient and wear rate during tribology test (as compared with other laser-processed coatings). Too-high laser density and heat input resulted in too-deep melting, higher sensitivity to cracking, and too-high level of coating and substrate mixing. Therefore, it is reasonable to balance power with appropriate operating speed to provide pass depth close to the thickness of the deposited layer. Based on the obtained dependencies for melted pool geometry, the optimal regimes may be determined more precisely, providing minimal substrate dilution and metallurgical bond. In addition, the step between adjacent passes may be reduced, providing larger pass overlapping. It is reasonable, as well, to continue study aiming to evaluate the effect of pre- and postheating procedures on coatings’ sensitivity to cracking and possible hardness reduction.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Sample Code||Laser Current, A||Peak Power Density, W/cm2||Laser Operating Speed, mm/min|
|S1||170||5.71 × 106||400|
|S2||170||5.71 × 106||300|
|S3||170||5.71 × 106||200|
|S4||170||5.71 × 106||100|
|S5||145||4.85 × 106||100|
|S6||120||4.00 × 106||100|
|Element||W-Rich Phase (in at.%)||Ni-Based Matrix (in wt.%)|
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Škamat, J.; Černašėjus, O.; Zhetessova, G.; Nikonova, T.; Zharkevich, O.; Višniakov, N. Effect of Laser Processing Parameters on Microstructure, Hardness and Tribology of NiCrCoFeCBSi/WC Coatings. Materials 2021, 14, 6034. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206034
Škamat J, Černašėjus O, Zhetessova G, Nikonova T, Zharkevich O, Višniakov N. Effect of Laser Processing Parameters on Microstructure, Hardness and Tribology of NiCrCoFeCBSi/WC Coatings. Materials. 2021; 14(20):6034. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206034Chicago/Turabian Style
Škamat, Jelena, Olegas Černašėjus, Gulnara Zhetessova, Tatyana Nikonova, Olga Zharkevich, and Nikolaj Višniakov. 2021. "Effect of Laser Processing Parameters on Microstructure, Hardness and Tribology of NiCrCoFeCBSi/WC Coatings" Materials 14, no. 20: 6034. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206034