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Article

Nanocrystalline Cellulose from Microcrystalline Cellulose of Date Palm Fibers as a Promising Candidate for Bio-Nanocomposites: Isolation and Characterization

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Research Unit Materials, Processes and Environment (URMPE), Faculty of Technology, M’hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes 35000, Algeria
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Laboratory of Coatings, Materials and Environment, M’hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes 35000, Algeria
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Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
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Applied Medical Science Department, Community College, King Saud University, P.O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, Saudi Arabia
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Mechanical & Industrial Engineering (MIE), University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandra Operamolla
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5313; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185313
Received: 20 July 2021 / Revised: 15 August 2021 / Accepted: 23 August 2021 / Published: 15 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanocrystalline Cellulose and Their Applications)
Date palm fiber (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a natural biopolymer rich in lignocellulosic components. Its high cellulose content lends them to the extraction of tiny particles like microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). These cellulose-derived small size particles can be used as an alternative biomaterial in wide fields of application due to their renewability and sustainability. In the present work, NCC (A) and NCC (B) were isolated from date palm MCC at 60 min and 90 min hydrolysis times, respectively. The isolated NCC product was subjected to characterization to study their properties differences. With the hydrolysis treatment, the yields of produced NCC could be attained at between 22% and 25%. The infrared-ray functional analysis also revealed the isolated NCC possessed a highly exposed cellulose compartment with minimized lignoresidues of lignin and hemicellulose. From morphology evaluation, the nanoparticles’ size was decreased gradually from NCC (A) (7.51 nm width, 139.91 nm length) to NCC (B) (4.34 nm width, 111.51 nm length) as a result of fragmentation into cellulose fibrils. The crystallinity index was found increasing from NCC (A) to NCC (B). With 90 min hydrolysis time, NCC (B) showed the highest crystallinity index of 71% due to its great cellulose rigidity. For thermal analysis, NCC (B) also exhibited stable heat resistance, in associating with its highly crystalline cellulose structure. In conclusion, the NCC isolated from date palm MCC would be a promising biomaterial for various applications such as biomedical and food packaging applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocrystalline cellulose; microcrystalline cellulose; date palm; morphology; crystallinity; thermal behavior nanocrystalline cellulose; microcrystalline cellulose; date palm; morphology; crystallinity; thermal behavior
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hachaichi, A.; Kouini, B.; Kian, L.K.; Asim, M.; Fouad, H.; Jawaid, M.; Sain, M. Nanocrystalline Cellulose from Microcrystalline Cellulose of Date Palm Fibers as a Promising Candidate for Bio-Nanocomposites: Isolation and Characterization. Materials 2021, 14, 5313. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185313

AMA Style

Hachaichi A, Kouini B, Kian LK, Asim M, Fouad H, Jawaid M, Sain M. Nanocrystalline Cellulose from Microcrystalline Cellulose of Date Palm Fibers as a Promising Candidate for Bio-Nanocomposites: Isolation and Characterization. Materials. 2021; 14(18):5313. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185313

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hachaichi, Amina, Benalia Kouini, Lau K. Kian, Mohammad Asim, Hassan Fouad, Mohammad Jawaid, and Mohini Sain. 2021. "Nanocrystalline Cellulose from Microcrystalline Cellulose of Date Palm Fibers as a Promising Candidate for Bio-Nanocomposites: Isolation and Characterization" Materials 14, no. 18: 5313. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185313

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