Tribochemical Interactions between Graphene and ZDDP in Friction Tests for Uncoated and W-DLC-Coated HS6-5-2C Steel
3.1. a-C:H Coating
3.2. Tribological Tests
- uncoated HS6-5-2C steel
- Coefficient of friction: For PAO + graphene, the coefficient was much higher than that obtained for the other lubricant variants.
- Wear scar size: When ZDDP was added to PAO, the wear scar area and wear depth on the disc were greater. Similar observations were made for PAO + graphene. Lubricant containing both additives, i.e., ZDDP and graphene, caused wear much smaller in size, yet still its value was higher than that reported for PAO with no additives.
- Linear wear: The addition of ZDDP to PAO resulted in lower values of linear wear. For PAO + graphene, they were even lower. The wear measured for PAO + ZDDP + graphene was similar to that obtained for PAO + ZDDP.
- W-DLC -coated HS6-5-2C steel
- Coefficient of friction: There were hardly any differences in the values between the mixtures tested.
- Wear scar size: The addition of ZDDP to PAO was responsible for a considerable decrease in the wear scar area and the wear depth on the disc. The values obtained for PAO + graphene were higher than those reported for PAO. Adding both ZDDP and graphene caused a significant decrease in the wear scar size; it was much smaller than that measured when PAO with no additives was used.
- Linear wear: The tests carried out for PAO + ZDDP show that there was a substantial decline in linear wear. For the other lubricant variants, the values of this parameter were approximately the same.
- The addition of ZDDP to the lubricant tested resulted in lower linear wear when the steel discs were uncoated.
- The use of ZDDP resulted in smaller wear scars when the disc had a W-DLC coating.
- Graphene added to the lubricant causes more intensive transport of energy from the solid to the system. This could be the reason why for PAO + graphene the wear was very high. In the presence of both additives, part of this energy reaches ZDDP molecules, which undergo triboreactions faster than when ZDDP is the only additive (higher concentrations of Zn, P and S). The tribological phenomena are greatly dependent on the surface properties of the solid elements in contact. The results obtained for W-DLC-coated steel discs differed from those reported for uncoated discs. It is thus evident that graphene and ZDDP interact, and the mechanism of this interaction is likely to be as follows. Graphene increases the transfer of energy from the solid surface to the molecules inside the lubricating film. Part of this energy is supplied to ZDDP molecules, initiating reactions leading to their decomposition. The rate of triboreactions involving ZDDP decreases, and so does the friction and wear of the contact surfaces (ball and disc).
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|PAO 8||PAO 8|
|PAO 8 + 1.5% ZDDP||PAO 8 + ZDDP|
|PAO 8 + 0.005% graphene||PAO 8 + graphene|
|PAO 8 + 1.5% ZDDP + 0.005% graphene||PAO 8 + ZDDP + graphene|
|Specific gravity (at 15.6 °C)||833 kg/m3|
|Kinematic viscosity at a given temperature [°C]:|
|−40||19 570 mm2/s|
|Density (at a temperature of 25 °C)||1160 kg/m3|
|Kinematic viscosity (at a temperature of 40 °C)||150 mm2/s|
|Surface Texture Parameters||Before Test; Uncoated Disc||PAO 8||PAO 8 + ZDDP||PAO 8 + Graphene||PAO 8 + ZDDP +|
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Kowalczyk, J.; Madej, M.; Dzięgielewski, W.; Kulczycki, A.; Żółty, M.; Ozimina, D. Tribochemical Interactions between Graphene and ZDDP in Friction Tests for Uncoated and W-DLC-Coated HS6-5-2C Steel. Materials 2021, 14, 3529. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133529
Kowalczyk J, Madej M, Dzięgielewski W, Kulczycki A, Żółty M, Ozimina D. Tribochemical Interactions between Graphene and ZDDP in Friction Tests for Uncoated and W-DLC-Coated HS6-5-2C Steel. Materials. 2021; 14(13):3529. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133529Chicago/Turabian Style
Kowalczyk, Joanna, Monika Madej, Wojciech Dzięgielewski, Andrzej Kulczycki, Magdalena Żółty, and Dariusz Ozimina. 2021. "Tribochemical Interactions between Graphene and ZDDP in Friction Tests for Uncoated and W-DLC-Coated HS6-5-2C Steel" Materials 14, no. 13: 3529. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133529