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Article

Photothermal Killing of A549 Cells and Autophagy Induction by Bismuth Selenide Particles

1
CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049, China
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, College of Pharmacy, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Montserrat Colilla
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3373; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123373
Received: 9 May 2021 / Revised: 2 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 18 June 2021
With a highly efficient optical absorption capability, bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) can be used as an outstanding photothermal agent for anti-tumor treatment and shows promise in the field of nanotechnology-based biomedicine. However, little research has been completed on the relevant mechanism underlying the photothermal killing effect of Bi2Se3. Herein, the photothermal effects of Bi2Se3 particles on A549 cells were explored with emphasis put on autophagy. First, we characterized the structure and physicochemical property of the synthesized Bi2Se3 and confirmed their excellent photothermal conversion efficiency (35.72%), photostability, biocompatibility and ability of photothermal killing on A549 cells. Enhanced autophagy was detected in Bi2Se3-exposed cells under an 808 nm laser. Consistently, an elevated expression ratio of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) to LC3-I, a marker of autophagy occurrence, was induced in Bi2Se3-exposed cells upon near infrared (NIR) irradiation. Meanwhile, the expression of cleaved-PARP was increased in the irradiated cells dependently on the exposure concentrations of Bi2Se3 particles. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) further strengthened the photothermal killing effect of Bi2Se3. Meanwhile, stress-related signaling pathways, including p38 and stress activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), were activated, coupled with the attenuated PI3K/Akt signaling. Our study finds that autophagy and the activation of stress-related signaling pathways are involved in the photothermal killing of cancerous cells by Bi2Se3, which provides a more understanding of photothermal materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: bismuth selenide; photothermal killing; apoptosis; autophagy; stress-related signaling pathway bismuth selenide; photothermal killing; apoptosis; autophagy; stress-related signaling pathway
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MDPI and ACS Style

You, Y.; Li, J.; Chen, L.; Wang, M.; Dong, X.; Yan, L.; Zhang, A.; Zhao, F. Photothermal Killing of A549 Cells and Autophagy Induction by Bismuth Selenide Particles. Materials 2021, 14, 3373. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123373

AMA Style

You Y, Li J, Chen L, Wang M, Dong X, Yan L, Zhang A, Zhao F. Photothermal Killing of A549 Cells and Autophagy Induction by Bismuth Selenide Particles. Materials. 2021; 14(12):3373. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123373

Chicago/Turabian Style

You, Yue, Jinxia Li, Linlin Chen, Mei Wang, Xinghua Dong, Liang Yan, Aiping Zhang, and Feng Zhao. 2021. "Photothermal Killing of A549 Cells and Autophagy Induction by Bismuth Selenide Particles" Materials 14, no. 12: 3373. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123373

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