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Article

Revealing Inflammatory Indications Induced by Titanium Alloy Wear Debris in Periprosthetic Tissue by Label-Free Correlative High-Resolution Ion, Electron and Optical Microspectroscopy

1
Ion Beam Center, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden, Germany
2
Condensed Matter Physics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Department of Low and Medium Energy Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4
Department of Pathology, University Medical Centre Maribor, Ljubljanska ulica 5, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
5
Department of Orthopaedics, University Medical Centre Maribor, Ljubljanska ulica 5, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Piotr Piszczek and Aleksandra Radtke
Materials 2021, 14(11), 3048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14113048
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 25 May 2021 / Accepted: 31 May 2021 / Published: 3 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titania-Based Materials for Medical Applications)
The metallic-associated adverse local tissue reactions (ALTR) and events accompanying worn-broken implant materials are still poorly understood on the subcellular and molecular level. Current immunohistochemical techniques lack spatial resolution and chemical sensitivity to investigate causal relations between material and biological response on submicron and even nanoscale. In our study, new insights of titanium alloy debris-tissue interaction were revealed by the implementation of label-free high-resolution correlative microscopy approaches. We have successfully characterized its chemical and biological impact on the periprosthetic tissue obtained at revision surgery of a fractured titanium-alloy modular neck of a patient with hip osteoarthritis. We applied a combination of photon, electron and ion beam micro-spectroscopy techniques, including hybrid optical fluorescence and reflectance micro-spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), helium ion microscopy (HIM) and micro-particle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). Micron-sized wear debris were found as the main cause of the tissue oxidative stress exhibited through lipopigments accumulation in the nearby lysosome. This may explain the indications of chronic inflammation from prior histologic examination. Furthermore, insights on extensive fretting and corrosion of the debris on nm scale and a quantitative measure of significant Al and V release into the tissue together with hydroxyapatite-like layer formation particularly bound to the regions with the highest Al content were revealed. The functional and structural information obtained at molecular and subcellular level contributes to a better understanding of the macroscopic inflammatory processes observed in the tissue level. The established label-free correlative microscopy approach can efficiently be adopted to study any other clinical cases related to ALTR. View Full-Text
Keywords: adverse local tissue reactions (ALTR); total hip arthroplasty (THA); titanium alloy; wear debris; periprosthetic tissue; correlative microscopy; micro-PIXE; SEM-EDS; HIM; hybrid confocal fluorescence and reflectance microscopy; fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM); fluorescence hyperspectral imaging (fHSI) adverse local tissue reactions (ALTR); total hip arthroplasty (THA); titanium alloy; wear debris; periprosthetic tissue; correlative microscopy; micro-PIXE; SEM-EDS; HIM; hybrid confocal fluorescence and reflectance microscopy; fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM); fluorescence hyperspectral imaging (fHSI)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Podlipec, R.; Punzón-Quijorna, E.; Pirker, L.; Kelemen, M.; Vavpetič, P.; Kavalar, R.; Hlawacek, G.; Štrancar, J.; Pelicon, P.; Fokter, S.K. Revealing Inflammatory Indications Induced by Titanium Alloy Wear Debris in Periprosthetic Tissue by Label-Free Correlative High-Resolution Ion, Electron and Optical Microspectroscopy. Materials 2021, 14, 3048. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14113048

AMA Style

Podlipec R, Punzón-Quijorna E, Pirker L, Kelemen M, Vavpetič P, Kavalar R, Hlawacek G, Štrancar J, Pelicon P, Fokter SK. Revealing Inflammatory Indications Induced by Titanium Alloy Wear Debris in Periprosthetic Tissue by Label-Free Correlative High-Resolution Ion, Electron and Optical Microspectroscopy. Materials. 2021; 14(11):3048. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14113048

Chicago/Turabian Style

Podlipec, Rok, Esther Punzón-Quijorna, Luka Pirker, Mitja Kelemen, Primož Vavpetič, Rajko Kavalar, Gregor Hlawacek, Janez Štrancar, Primož Pelicon, and Samo K. Fokter 2021. "Revealing Inflammatory Indications Induced by Titanium Alloy Wear Debris in Periprosthetic Tissue by Label-Free Correlative High-Resolution Ion, Electron and Optical Microspectroscopy" Materials 14, no. 11: 3048. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14113048

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