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Article

Novel Low-Twist Bast Fibre Yarns from Flax Tow for High-Performance Composite Applications

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The Biological Materials Group, Department of Biomimetics, HSB–City University of Applied Sciences, Neustadtswall 30, D-28199 Bremen, Germany
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Institut für Textiltechnik of RWTH Aachen University, Otto-Blumenthal Straße 1, D-52074 Aachen, Germany
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Wenzel & Hoos GmbH, Berliner Straße 35, D-36304 Alsfeld-Leusel, Germany
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INVENT GmbH, Christian-Pommer-Straße 47, D-38112 Braunschweig, Germany
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NOVACOM Verstärkte Kunststoffe GmbH, Werkstraße 26, D-52076 Aachen, Germany
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SachsenLeinen GmbH, August-Bebel-Straße 2, D-04416 Markkleeberg, Germany
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BAFA neu GmbH, Stephanstraße 2, D-76316 Malsch, Germany
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2021, 14(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010105
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 22 December 2020 / Accepted: 23 December 2020 / Published: 29 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Natural Fibre Composites)
The use of natural fibres for components subjected to higher mechanical requirements tends to be limited by the high price of high-quality semi-finished products. Therefore, the present study deals with the development of more cost-effective staple fibre yarns made from flax tow. In the subsequent processing stage, the yarns were processed into quasi-unidirectional (UD) fabrics. The results of the fibre characterisation along the process chain have shown that no significant mechanical fibre damage occurs after slivers’ production. Fibres prepared from yarns and fabrics show comparable characteristics. The yarns were processed to composites by pultrusion to verify the reinforcement effect. The mechanical properties were comparable to those of composites made from a high-quality UD flax roving. The fabrics were industrially processed into composite laminates using a vacuum infusion and an autoclave injection process (vacuum injection method in an autoclave). While impact strength compared to a reference laminate based on the UD flax roving was achieved, tensile and flexural properties were not reached. An analysis showed that the staple fibre yarns in the fabric show an undulation, leading to a reorientation of the fibres and lower characteristic values, which show 86–92% of the laminate made from the flax roving. Hybrid laminates with outer glass and inner flax layers were manufactured for the intended development of a leaf spring for the bogie of a narrow-gauge railroad as a demonstrator. The hybrid composites display excellent mechanical properties and showed clear advantages over a pure glass fibre-reinforced composite in lightweight construction potential, particularly flexural stiffness. View Full-Text
Keywords: flax; staple fibre yarn; leaf spring; mechanical characteristics; high-performance composites flax; staple fibre yarn; leaf spring; mechanical characteristics; high-performance composites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Graupner, N.; Lehmann, K.-H.; Weber, D.E.; Hilgers, H.-W.; Bell, E.G.; Walenta, I.; Berger, L.; Brückner, T.; Kölzig, K.; Randerath, H.; Bruns, A.; Frank, B.; Wonneberger, M.; Joulian, M.; Bruns, L.; von Dungern, F.; Janßen, A.; Gries, T.; Kunst, S.; Müssig, J. Novel Low-Twist Bast Fibre Yarns from Flax Tow for High-Performance Composite Applications. Materials 2021, 14, 105. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010105

AMA Style

Graupner N, Lehmann K-H, Weber DE, Hilgers H-W, Bell EG, Walenta I, Berger L, Brückner T, Kölzig K, Randerath H, Bruns A, Frank B, Wonneberger M, Joulian M, Bruns L, von Dungern F, Janßen A, Gries T, Kunst S, Müssig J. Novel Low-Twist Bast Fibre Yarns from Flax Tow for High-Performance Composite Applications. Materials. 2021; 14(1):105. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010105

Chicago/Turabian Style

Graupner, Nina, Karl-Heinz Lehmann, David E. Weber, Hans-Willi Hilgers, Erik G. Bell, Isabel Walenta, Luisa Berger, Torsten Brückner, Kay Kölzig, Herbert Randerath, Albert Bruns, Bernd Frank, Maik Wonneberger, Marc Joulian, Lisa Bruns, Friedrich von Dungern, Alexander Janßen, Thomas Gries, Stefan Kunst, and Jörg Müssig. 2021. "Novel Low-Twist Bast Fibre Yarns from Flax Tow for High-Performance Composite Applications" Materials 14, no. 1: 105. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010105

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