The manufacturing of ideal implants requires fabrication processes enabling an adjustment of the shape, porosity and pore sizes to the patient-specific defect. To meet these criteria novel porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) implants were manufactured by combining ceramic injection molding (CIM) with sacrificial templating. Varied amounts (Φ = 0–40 Vol%) of spherical pore formers with a size of 20 µm were added to a HAp-feedstock to generate well-defined porosities of 11.2–45.2 Vol% after thermal debinding and sintering. At pore former contents Φ ≥ 30 Vol% interconnected pore networks were formed. The investigated Young’s modulus and flexural strength decreased with increasing pore former content from 97.3 to 29.1 GPa and 69.0 to 13.0 MPa, agreeing well with a fitted power-law approach. Additionally, interpenetrating HAp/polymer composites were manufactured by infiltrating and afterwards curing of an urethane dimethacrylate-based (UDMA) monomer solution into the porous HAp ceramic preforms. The obtained stiffness (32–46 GPa) and Vickers hardness (1.2–2.1 GPa) of the HAp/UDMA composites were comparable to natural dentin, enamel and other polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) materials. The combination of CIM and sacrificial templating facilitates a near-net shape manufacturing of complex shaped bone and dental implants, whose properties can be directly tailored by the amount, shape and size of the pore formers.
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