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Open AccessArticle

Preparation of Silver/Chitosan Nanofluids Using Selected Plant Extracts: Characterization and Antimicrobial Studies against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

1
Center of Research Excellence in Corrosion, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Life Sciences, College of Science, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071629
Received: 5 February 2020 / Revised: 16 March 2020 / Accepted: 17 March 2020 / Published: 1 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles for Biomedical Application)
Chitosan/silver nanofluids were prepared using Phoenix dactylifera (DPLE) or Rumex vesicarius (HEL) extracts as the reducing agent, characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet–visible (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The antimicrobial effect of the nanofluids against Gram positive, Bacillus licheniformis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Bacillus cereus, and Micrococcus luteus, and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas citronellolis, and Escherichia coli bacteria has been studied. The nanoparticles were polydispersed in the chitosan matrix and are highly stable. The zeta potential of the silver nanoparticles in DPLE- and HEL-mediated composites is +46 mV and +56 mV, respectively. The FTIR results reveal that the free carboxylate groups in the plant biomaterial took part in stabilization process. HEL is a stronger reducing agent than DPLE and nanoparticles generated with HEL are smaller (8.0–36 nm) than those produced with DPLE (10–43 nm). DPLE- and HEL-mediated composites effectively inhibit the growth of the studied bacteria but HEL-mediated composite exhibited higher effect. The higher antimicrobial activity of HEL-mediated composite is linked to the smaller nanoparticles. The foregoing results indicate that HEL extract can be used in the green production of potential antimicrobial chitosan/silver nanofluids for biomedical and packaging applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phoenix dactylifera; Rumex vesicarius; nanofluid; chitosan; silver nanoparticles; antimicrobial effect Phoenix dactylifera; Rumex vesicarius; nanofluid; chitosan; silver nanoparticles; antimicrobial effect
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MDPI and ACS Style

Umoren, S.A.; Solomon, M.M.; Nzila, A.; Obot, I.B. Preparation of Silver/Chitosan Nanofluids Using Selected Plant Extracts: Characterization and Antimicrobial Studies against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria. Materials 2020, 13, 1629.

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