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Article

Thiophene- and Carbazole-Substituted N-Methyl-Fulleropyrrolidine Acceptors in PffBT4T-2OD Based Solar Cells

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IPC/i3N—Institute for Polymers and Composites, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800–058 Guimarães, Portugal
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QOPNA & LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810–193 Aveiro, Portugal
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CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810–193 Aveiro, Portugal
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LEPABE, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Porto, 4200–465 Porto, Portugal
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CQE, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, n1, 1049–001 Lisboa, Portugal
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Department of Chemistry, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, s/n, 4169–007 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Physics and i3N—Institute for Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication, University of Aveiro, 3810–193 Aveiro, Portugal
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061267
Received: 7 February 2020 / Revised: 3 March 2020 / Accepted: 9 March 2020 / Published: 11 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Materials for Sustainable Energy Conversion and Storage)
The impact of fullerene side chain functionalization with thiophene and carbazole groups on the device properties of bulk-heterojunction polymer:fullerene solar cells is discussed through a systematic investigation of material blends consisting of the conjugated polymer poly[(5,6-difluoro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4,7-diyl)-alt-(3,3‴-di(2-octyldodecyl)-2,2′;5′,2″;5″,2‴-quaterthiophen-5,5‴-diyl)] (PffBT4T-2OD) as donor and C60 or C70 fulleropyrrolidines as acceptors. The photovoltaic performance clearly depended on the molecular structure of the fulleropyrrolidine substituents although no direct correlation with the surface morphology of the photoactive layer, as determined by atomic force microscopy, could be established. Although some fulleropyrrolidines possess favorable lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels, when compared to the standard PC71BM, they originated OPV cells with inferior efficiencies than PC71BM-based reference cells. Fulleropyrrolidines based on C60 produced, in general, better devices than those based on C70, and we attribute this observation to the detrimental effect of the structural and energetic disorder that is present in the regioisomer mixtures of C70-based fullerenes, but absent in the C60-based fullerenes. These results provide new additional knowledge on the effect of the fullerene functionalization on the efficiency of organic solar cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymer solar cells; fulleropyrrolidine acceptors; C70 mono-adducts; regioisomers; stereoisomers polymer solar cells; fulleropyrrolidine acceptors; C70 mono-adducts; regioisomers; stereoisomers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gaspar, H.; Figueira, F.; Strutyński, K.; Melle-Franco, M.; Ivanou, D.; Tomé, J.P.C.; Pereira, C.M.; Pereira, L.; Mendes, A.; Viana, J.C.; Bernardo, G. Thiophene- and Carbazole-Substituted N-Methyl-Fulleropyrrolidine Acceptors in PffBT4T-2OD Based Solar Cells. Materials 2020, 13, 1267. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061267

AMA Style

Gaspar H, Figueira F, Strutyński K, Melle-Franco M, Ivanou D, Tomé JPC, Pereira CM, Pereira L, Mendes A, Viana JC, Bernardo G. Thiophene- and Carbazole-Substituted N-Methyl-Fulleropyrrolidine Acceptors in PffBT4T-2OD Based Solar Cells. Materials. 2020; 13(6):1267. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061267

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gaspar, Hugo, Flávio Figueira, Karol Strutyński, Manuel Melle-Franco, Dzmitry Ivanou, João P.C. Tomé, Carlos M. Pereira, Luiz Pereira, Adélio Mendes, Júlio C. Viana, and Gabriel Bernardo. 2020. "Thiophene- and Carbazole-Substituted N-Methyl-Fulleropyrrolidine Acceptors in PffBT4T-2OD Based Solar Cells" Materials 13, no. 6: 1267. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061267

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