Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are among nanoscale materials, attracting increasing attention owing to their exceptional set of characteristics, which makes these engineered nanoparticles a great option for improving the quality and effectiveness of diagnosis and treatment. The capacity of ZnO NPs to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA damage, and apoptosis represents a promise for their use in both cancer therapy and microbial treatment. However, their intrinsic toxicity together with their easy entrance and accumulation in organism have raised some concerns regarding the biomedical use of these NPs. Several studies have reported that ZnO NPs might induce cytotoxic effects on the male reproductive system, compromising male fertility. Despite some advances in this area, the knowledge of the effects of ZnO NPs on male fertility is still scarce. Overall, a brief outline of the major ZnO NPs biomedical applications and promises in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic use will also be explored. Further, this review intends to discuss the effect of ZnO NPs exposure on the male reproductive system and speculate their effects on male (in)fertility.
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