Immediately after dental implant insertion, blood will be in direct contact and interact with the implant surface and activates inflammatory responses and complement cascades within seconds. The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of fluoride-modified titanium surfaces to activate complement cascades using the human buffy coat as model. The buffy coats were exposed to hydrofluoric acid-modified surfaces for a short time and its responses were compared to controls. Identification and quantification of complement cascade biomarkers were conducted using ELISA kits and multianalyte profiling using Luminex. A lower level of C3 at 30 min and increased levels of C4, MIP-4, CRP, and pigment epithelium-derived factor at 360 min were found on modified surfaces as compared to controls. We found no significant differences in the levels of C3a, C5a, C Factor H, α2M, ApoA1, ApoC3, ApoE, Prealbumin, α1AT, and SAP in modified surfaces in the buffy coats. We conclude that titanium surfaces treated with hydrofluoric acid modify the levels of specific biomarkers related to the complement cascade and angiogenesis and, thus, tissue growth, remodeling and repair, as this may play a role in the enhanced clinical performance of fluoride-modified Ti dental implants.
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