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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle

A Proposal of a Method for Ready-Mixed Concrete Quality Assessment Based on Statistical-Fuzzy Approach

1
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Rzeszow University of Technology, Powstanców Warszawy 12, 35-082 Rzeszow, Poland
2
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
3
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, UTP University of Science and Technology, Al. Prof. S. Kaliskiego 7, 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
4
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5674; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245674
Received: 10 November 2020 / Revised: 7 December 2020 / Accepted: 8 December 2020 / Published: 12 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing of Materials and Elements in Civil Engineering)
Control of technical parameters obtained by ready-mixed concrete may be carried out at different stages of the development of concrete properties and by different participants involved in the construction investment process. According to the European Standard EN 206 “Concrete–Specification, performance, production and conformity”, mandatory control of concrete conformity is conducted by the producer during production. As shown by the subject literature, statistical criteria set out in the standard, including the method for concrete quality assessment based on the concept of concrete family, continue to evoke discussions and raise doubts. This justifies seeking alternative methods for concrete quality assessment. This paper presents a novel approach to quality control and classification of concrete based on combining statistical and fuzzy theories as a means of representation of two types of uncertainty: random uncertainty and information uncertainty. In concrete production, a typical situation when fuzzy uncertainty can be taken into consideration is the conformity control of concrete compressive strength, which is conducted to confirm the declared concrete class. The proposed procedure for quality assessment of a concrete batch is based on defining the membership function for the considered concrete classes and establishing the degree of belonging to the considered concrete class. It was found that concrete classification set out by the standard includes too many concrete classes of overlapping probability density distributions, and the proposed solution was to limit the scope of compressive strength to every second class so as to ensure the efficacy of conformity assessment conducted for concrete classes and concrete families. The proposed procedures can lead to two types of decisions: non-fuzzy (crisp) or fuzzy, which point out to possible solutions and their corresponding preferences. The suggested procedure for quality assessment allows to classify a concrete batch in a fuzzy way with the degree of certainty less than or equal to 1. The results obtained confirm the possibility of employing the proposed method for quality assessment in the production process of ready-mixed concrete. View Full-Text
Keywords: ready-mixed concrete; construction material; quality assessment; conformity criteria; statistical-fuzzy method ready-mixed concrete; construction material; quality assessment; conformity criteria; statistical-fuzzy method
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MDPI and ACS Style

Skrzypczak, I.; Kokoszka, W.; Zięba, J.; Leśniak, A.; Bajno, D.; Bednarz, L. A Proposal of a Method for Ready-Mixed Concrete Quality Assessment Based on Statistical-Fuzzy Approach. Materials 2020, 13, 5674. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245674

AMA Style

Skrzypczak I, Kokoszka W, Zięba J, Leśniak A, Bajno D, Bednarz L. A Proposal of a Method for Ready-Mixed Concrete Quality Assessment Based on Statistical-Fuzzy Approach. Materials. 2020; 13(24):5674. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245674

Chicago/Turabian Style

Skrzypczak, Izabela; Kokoszka, Wanda; Zięba, Joanna; Leśniak, Agnieszka; Bajno, Dariusz; Bednarz, Lukasz. 2020. "A Proposal of a Method for Ready-Mixed Concrete Quality Assessment Based on Statistical-Fuzzy Approach" Materials 13, no. 24: 5674. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245674

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