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Open AccessArticle

Alkali Activation of Waste Clay Bricks: Influence of The Silica Modulus, SiO2/Na2O, H2O/Na2O Molar Ratio, and Liquid/Solid Ratio

1
Department of Refractories, Ceramic and Building Materials, National Research Center (NRC), 12311 Dokki Cairo, Egypt
2
Institute of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Materials Engineering and Physics, Cracow University of Technology, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(2), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020383
Received: 18 November 2019 / Revised: 18 December 2019 / Accepted: 23 December 2019 / Published: 14 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alkali‐Activated Materials for Sustainable Construction)
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of various reaction conditions, namely the silica modulus SiO2/Na2O, H2O/Na2O molar ratio, and liquid/solid ratio on the geopolymerization reaction of the waste fired clay bricks (Grog). The starting raw material and the generated geopolymer specimens produced by different geopolymerization reaction conditions have been characterized using different techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermal analysis. Furthermore, physico–mechanical characterization has been carried out through the determination of bulk density, porosity, water absorption, and compressive strength for each sample at interval curing times of up to 28 days. The results indicated that the geopolymerization system of the waste fired clay bricks is influenced by the investigated reaction conditions at room temperature. The compressive strength of the geopolymer sample produced at optimum conditions increased significantly by up to 37.5 MPa, in comparison with 4.5 MPa for other conditions. Finally, an optimum recommendation and useful conclusions concerning the recycling and utilization of this waste material through the geopolymerization process are made for compatibility with construction applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: geopolymer; waste fired clay bricks (Grog); silica modulus (Ms); H2O/Na2O molar ratio; liquid/solid ratio; geopolymerization rate geopolymer; waste fired clay bricks (Grog); silica modulus (Ms); H2O/Na2O molar ratio; liquid/solid ratio; geopolymerization rate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gado, R.A.; Hebda, M.; Łach, M.; Mikuła, J. Alkali Activation of Waste Clay Bricks: Influence of The Silica Modulus, SiO2/Na2O, H2O/Na2O Molar Ratio, and Liquid/Solid Ratio. Materials 2020, 13, 383.

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