Next Article in Journal
Thermal Upgrade of Enzymatically Synthesized Aliphatic and Aromatic Oligoesters
Previous Article in Journal
Graphene Oxide-Assisted Morphology and Structure of Electrodeposited ZnO Nanostructures
Previous Article in Special Issue
Alginate-Based Aerogel Particles as Drug Delivery Systems: Investigation of the Supercritical Adsorption and In Vitro Evaluations
Open AccessReview

Drug Delivery with Polymeric Nanocarriers—Cellular Uptake Mechanisms

Department of Materials and Production, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(2), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020366
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery Application)
Nanocarrier-based systems hold a promise to become “Dr. Ehrlich’s Magic Bullet” capable of delivering drugs, proteins and genetic materials intact to a specific location in an organism down to subcellular level. The key question, however, how a nanocarrier is internalized by cells and how its intracellular trafficking and the fate in the cell can be controlled remains yet to be answered. In this review we survey drug delivery systems based on various polymeric nanocarriers, their uptake mechanisms, as well as the experimental techniques and common pathway inhibitors applied for internalization studies. While energy-dependent endocytosis is observed as the main uptake pathway, the integrity of a drug-loaded nanocarrier upon its internalization appears to be a seldomly addressed problem that can drastically affect the uptake kinetics and toxicity of the system in vitro and in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: drug delivery systems; endocytosis; polymeric micelles; amphiphilic block copolymers; nanoparticles; drug release drug delivery systems; endocytosis; polymeric micelles; amphiphilic block copolymers; nanoparticles; drug release
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Nelemans, L.C.; Gurevich, L. Drug Delivery with Polymeric Nanocarriers—Cellular Uptake Mechanisms. Materials 2020, 13, 366.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop